ANGEL, ANGELS
Also see Michael, the archangel

Fallen angels

ANGEL in scriptures [BibleGateway Search]

select Cross Reference Bible links
Psalm 104:4
Hebrews 1:4-14


ANGEL [Easton Bible Dictionary]

A word signifying, both in the Hebrew and Greek, a "messenger," and hence employed to denote any agent God sends forth to execute his purposes. It is used of
an ordinary messenger (Job 1:14: 1 Samuel 11:3; Luke 7:24; 9:52),
of prophets (Isaiah 42:19; Haggai 1:13),
of priests (Malachi 2:7),
and ministers of the New Testament (Revelation 1:20).

It is also applied to such impersonal agents as
the pestilence (2 Samuel 24:16,17; 2Kings 19:35),
the wind (Psalms 104:4).
But its distinctive application is to certain heavenly intelligences whom God employs in carrying on his government of the world. The name does not denote their nature but their office as messengers. The appearances
to Abraham at Mamre (Genesis 18:2,22. Comp 19:1),
to Jacob at Peniel (Genesis 32:24,30),
to Joshua at Gilgal (Joshua 5:13,15),
of the Angel of the Lord, were doubtless
manifestations of the Divine presence,
"foreshadowings of the incarnation,"
revelations before the "fulness of the time" of the Son of God.

# The existence and orders of angelic beings can only be discovered from the Scriptures.

Although the Bible does not treat of this subject specially, yet there are numerous incidental details that furnish us with ample information. Their personal existence is plainly implied in such passages as Genesis 16:7,10,11; Judges 13:1-21; Matthew 28:2-5; Hebrews 1:4, etc.

These superior beings are very numerous. "Thousand thousands," etc. (Daniel 7:10; Matthew 26:53; Luke 2:13; Hebrews 12:22,23).

They are also spoken of as of different ranks in dignity and power (Zechariah 1:9,11; Daniel 10:13; 12:1; 1 Thessalonians 4:16; Jude 1:9; Ephesians 1:21; Colossians 1:16).

# As to their nature, they are spirits (Hebrews 1:14), like the soul of man, but not incorporeal.

* Such expressions as "like the angels" (Luke 20:36), and the fact that whenever angels appeared to man it was always in a human form (Genesis 18:2; 19:1,10; Luke 24:4; Acts 1:10), and the titles that are applied to them ("sons of God," Job 1:6; 38:7; Daniel 3:25; Compare 28) and to men (Luke 3:38), seem all to indicate some resemblance between them and the human race.
* Imperfection is ascribed to them as creatures (Job 4:18; Matthew 24:36; 1 Peter 1:12).
* As finite creatures they may fall under temptation; and accordingly we read of "fallen angels." Of the cause and manner of their "fall" we are wholly ignorant. We know only that "they left their first estate" (Matthew 25:41; Revelation 12:7,9), and that they are "reserved unto judgement" (2 Peter 2:4).
* When the manna is called "angels' food," this is merely to denote its excellence (Psalms 78:25).
* Angels never die (Luke 20:36).
* They are possessed of superhuman intelligence and power (Mark 13:32; 2th 1:7; Psalms 103:20).
* They are called "holy" (Luke 9:26), "elect" (1 Timothy 5:21).
* The redeemed in glory are "like unto the angels" (Luke 20:36).
* They are not to be worshipped (Colossians 2:18; Revelation 19:10).

# Their functions are manifold.

(a) In the widest sense they are agents of God's providence (Exodus 12:23; Psalms 104:4; Hebrews 11:28; 1 Corinthians 10:10; 2Sam 24:16; 1 Chronicles 21:16; 2Kings 19:35; Acts 12:23).

(b) They are specially God's agents in carrying on his great work of redemption. There is no notice of angelic appearances to man till after the call of Abraham. From that time onward there are frequent references to their ministry on earth (Genesis 18; 19; 24:7,40; 28:12; 32:1). They appear to rebuke idolatry (Judges 2:1-4), to call Gideon (Judges 6:11,12), and to consecrate Samson (13:3). In the days of the prophets, from Samuel downward, the angels appear only in their behalf (1 Kings 19:5; 2Kings 6:17; Zech. 1-6; Daniel 4:13,23; 10:10,13,20,21).

The Incarnation introduces a new era in the ministrations of angels.

* They come with their Lord to earth to do him service while here. They predict his advent (Matthew 1:20; Luke 1:26-38), minister to him after his temptation and agony (Matthew 4:11; Luke 22:43), and declare his resurrection and ascension (Matthew 28:2-8; John 20:12,13; Acts 1:10,11).

* They are now ministering spirits to the people of God (Hebrews 1:14; Psalms 34:7; 91:11; Matthew 18:10; Acts 5:19; 8:26; 10:3; 12:7; 27:23).

* They rejoice over a penitent sinner (Luke 15:10).

* They bear the souls of the redeemed to paradise (Luke 16:22); and they will be the ministers of judgement hereafter on the great day (Matthew 13:39,41,49; 16:27; 24:31).

* The passages (Psalms 34:7, Matthew 18:10) usually referred to in support of the idea that every individual has a particular guardian angel have no such meaning. They merely indicate that God employs the ministry of angels to deliver his people from affliction and danger, and that the angels do not think it below their dignity to minister even to children and to the least among Christ's disciples.

The "angel of his presence" (Isaiah 63:9. Compare Exodus 23:20,21; 32:34; 33:2; Numbers 20:16) is probably rightly interpreted of the Messiah as the guide of his people. Others have supposed the expression to refer to Gabriel (Luke 1:19).


ANGEL of the LORD - ANGELS [Smith Bible Dictionary]

Angel of the Lord

(Genesis 16:7) etc. (The special form in which God manifested himself to man, and hence Christís visible form before the incarnation. Compare (Acts 7:30-38) with the corresponding Old-Testament history; and (Genesis 18:1,13,14,33) and Genesis 19:1 )

Raíphael

(the divine healer).

According to Jewish tradition, Raphael was one of the four angels which stood round the throne of God -- Michael, Uriel, Gabriel, Raphael.

Angels

By the word "angels" (i.e. "messengers" of God) we ordinarily understand a race of spiritual beings of a nature exalted far above that of man, although infinitely removed from that of God -- whose office is "to do him service in heaven, and by his appointment to succor and defend men on earth.

I. Scriptural use of the word .

--There are many passages in which the expression "angel of God" is certainly used for a manifestation of God himself (Genesis 22:11) with Genesis 22:12 and Exod 3:2 with Exod 3:6 and Exod 3:14 It is to be observed, also, that side by side with these expressions we read of Godís being manifested in the form of man -- as to Abraham at Mamre, (Genesis 18:2,22) comp. Genesis 19:1 To Jacob at Penuel, (Genesis 32:24,30) to Joshua at Gilgal, (Joshua 5:13,15) etc. Besides this, which is the highest application of the word angel, we find the phrase used of any messengers of God, such as the prophets, (Isaiah 42:19; Haggai 1:13; Malachi 3:1) the priests, (Malachi 2:7) and the rulers of the Christian churches. (Revelation 1:20)

II. Nature of angels

--Angels are termed "spirits," as in (Hebrews 1:14) -- but it is not asserted that the angelic nature is incorporeal. The contrary seems expressly implied in (Luke 20:36; Philemon 3:21) The angels are revealed to us as beings such as man might be, and will be when the power of sin and death is removed, because always beholding his face, (Matthew 18:10) and therefore being "made like him." (1 John 3:2) Their number must be very large, (1 Kings 22:19; Matthew 26:53; Hebrews 12:22) their strength is great, (Psalms 103:20; Revelation 5:2; 18:21) their activity marvelous (Isaiah 6:2-6; Matthew 26:53; Revelation 8:13) their appearance varied according to circumstances, but was often brilliant and dazzling. (Matthew 28:2-7; Revelation 10:1,2) Of the nature of "fallen angels," the circumstances and nature of the temptation by which they fell, we know absolutely nothing. All that is certain is that they "left their first estate" and that they are now "angels of the devil." ( Matthew 25:41; Revelation 12:7,9) On the other hand the title especially assigned to the angels of God -- that of the "holy ones," see (Daniel 4:13,23; 8:13; Matthew 25:31) -- is precisely the one which is given to those men who are renewed in Christís image. Comp. (Hebrews 2:10; 5:9; 12:23)

III. Office of the angels.

Of their office in heaven we have only vague prophetic glimpses as in (1 Kings 22:19; Isaiah 6:1-3; Daniel 7:9,10; Revelation 6:11), etc., which show us nothing but a never-ceasing adoration. They are represented as being, in the widest sense, agents of Godís providence, natural and supernatural, to the body and to the soul. In one word, they are Christís ministers of grace now, and they shall be of judgment hereafter. (Matthew 13:39,41,49; 16:27; 24:31) etc. That there are degrees of the angelic nature, both fallen and unfallen, and special titles and agencies belonging to each, is clearly declared by St. Paul, (Ephesians 1:21; Romans 8:38) but what their general nature is it is useless to speculate.


ANGELS [Fausset's Bible Dictionary]

("messengers".) Often with "of God" or "Jehovah" added. Sometimes called the "holy ones," "saints." The "Angel of God" often means the Divide Word, "the Image of the invisible God," God Himself manifested (Colossians 1:15; Genesis 22:11-12; Genesis 16:7; Genesis 16:13; Genesis 31:11; Genesis 31:13; Genesis 48:15-16; Genesis 33:14; compare Isaiah 63:9; Exodus 3:2; Exodus 3:6; Exodus 3:14; Exodus 23:20-22; Acts 27:23-24, compare Acts 23:11; Numbers 22:22-32-35); accepting as His due the worship which angels reject as mere creatures (Revelation 19:10; Revelation 22:9); this manifestation was as man, an anticipation of the incarnation (John 1:18; Genesis 18:2; Genesis 18:22; Genesis 19:1; Genesis 32:24; Genesis 32:30; Joshua 5:13; Joshua 5:15).

"Angel," "Son of God," "Gods" (Elohim), "Holy One," in the fullest sense, are names of the divine Word alone. His incarnation is the center by reference to which all angelic ministration is best understood. Compare John 1:51, Greek (aparti), "from this time forth ye shall see heaven open" (heretofore shut, against man by sin: Hebrews 9:8; Hebrews 10:19-20) "and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man," as the antitypical Jacob's ladder, the center of communication between men and God, the redeemed and the angelic world; Jesus' miracles, of which mention immediately follows (John 2), are firstfruit of this newly opened communion of earth and heaven (Genesis 28:12-17). Secondarily, God's created messengers; as Israel (Isaiah 42:19), Haggai (Haggai 1:13), John (Malachi 3:1; Malachi 2:7), the priesthood, ministers (Ecclesiastes 5:6), the rulers or angels of the Christian churches (Revelation 1:20), as Elohim, "gods" is applied to judges (Psalm 82:6); compare Jesus' application, John 10:34-37.

As to the nature of "angels" in the limited sense, they are "spirits" (Hebrews 1:7; Hebrews 1:14), of wind-like velocity, subtle nature, capable of close communion with God; sharers in His truth, purity, and love, since they ever behold His face (Matthew 18:10), even as the redeemed shall (1 John 3:2); not necessarily incorporeal; Luke 20:36 (compare Philemon 3:21), 1 Corinthians 15:44, seemingly but not certainly imply their having bodies. Their glorious appearance (Daniel 10:6), like our Lord's when transfigured and afterward as the ascended Savior (Revelation 1:14-16), and their human form (Luke 24:4; Acts 1:10), favor the same view. Close kindred of nature between angels and men is implied in both being alike called "sons of God" (Job 1:6; Job 38:7; Daniel 3:25; Daniel 3:28) and "gods" (Elohim) (Psalm 8:5; Hebrew Elohim "angels," Psalm 97:7; Luke 3:38).

Finite, but ever progressing in the participation of God's infinite perfection (Job 4:18; Matthew 24:36; 1 Peter 1:12). Our fellow servants, "sent forth unto ministry for the sake of them who shall be heirs of salvation" (Hebrews 1:14), i.e., on ministrations appointed by God and Christ for the good of them who shall be heirs of salvation. Worship and service are their twofold function; priests in the heavenly temple (Isaiah 6:1-3; 1 Kings 22:19; Daniel 7:9-10; Revelation 5:11), and sent forth thence on God's missions of love and justice. As finite, and having liberty, they were capable of temptation. Some "kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation" (2 Peter 2:4; Judges 1:6). "The elect angels" fell not; they take part, by act and sympathy, in our affairs, and shall witness the Judgment (Luke 15:10; 1 Corinthians 4:9).

The fallen are not yet actually confined in the bottomless pit, but are doomed to it, "reserved unto judgment," and though seeming free, and ranging in our air, under the prince of the powers of the air (Ephesians 2:2), are really in "chains of darkness" already, able only to hurt to the length of their chain. Satan is their prince, a liar, murderer, slanderer; and such are they (John 8:44). The probation of the elect angels is over; their crown is won, they are the "holy ones" now (Daniel 8:13), under the blessed necessity of sinning no more. "Watchers" of men, jealous for God's honor (Daniel 4:13; Daniel 4:23). Bad angels are permitted to try believers now, as Job; good angels are God's ministers of vengeance on the bad (Revelation 12:8-9; Revelation 20:1-2). Such shall the saints be at last, "equal to the angels," holy, made perfect, judges of angels and the world, ministering mediators of blessing to subject creatures (Hebrews 12:23; 1 Corinthians 6:2-3; Revelation 5:10).

In the natural world angels minister, as in directing wind and flame (according to one translation of Psalm 104:4; Hebrews 1:7): "the angel of Jehovah" wrought in the plague on the Egyptian firstborn (Exodus 12:23; Hebrews 11:28), and on the rebels in the wilderness (1 Corinthians 10:10), on Israel under David (2 Samuel 24:16; 1 Chronicles 21:16), on Sennacherib's army (2 Kings 19:35), on Herod (Acts 12:23). An angel troubled the pool of Bethesda (the Alex. manuscript supports the verse, the Sin. and the Vat. manuscripts reject it), giving it a healing power, as in our mineral springs (John 5:4): They act, in an unknown way, in and through "nature's laws." In the spiritual world too: by their ministration the Sinaitic law was given, "ordained by angels" (Galatians 3:19), "spoken" by them (Hebrews 2:2), by their "disposition" or appointment (Acts 7:53; compare Deuteronomy 33:2; Psalm 68:17).

From the first creation of our world they took the liveliest interest in the earth (Job 38:7). When man fell by evil angels, with beautiful propriety it was ordered that other angels, holy and unfallen, should minister for God in His reparation of the evil caused to man by their fallen fellow spirits. They rescued at Jehovah's command righteous Lot from doomed Sodom, Jacob from his murderous brother (Genesis 19; 32). "Manna" is called "angels' food," "the grain of heaven"; not that angels eat it, but it came from above whence angels come, and through their ministry (Psalm 78:25). When Elisha was in Dothan, surrounded by Syrian hosts, and his servant cried, "Alas! how shall we do?" the Lord opened his eyes to see the mount full of chariots and horses of fire round about (2 Kings 6:15; 2 Kings 6:17, compare Psalm 94:7). By God's angel Daniel was saved in the lions' den (Daniel 6:22); compare Daniel 3:28 as to the fiery furnace.

Michael (whom some questionably identify with the Son of God) is represented as Israel's champion against Israel's (the literal and the spiritual) accuser, Satan (Daniel 12:1, compare Revelation 12:7-10). Daniel 10 unfolds the mysterious truth that there are angel princes in the spirit world, answering to the God-opposed leaders of kingdoms in the political world, the prince of Persia and the prince of Grecia standing in antagonism to Michael. In patriarchal times their ministry is more familiar, and less awful, than in after times. Compare Genesis 24:7; Genesis 24:40 (the angelic guidance of Abraham's servant in choosing a wife for Isaac, and encouraging Jacob in his loneliness at Bethel on first leaving home, Genesis 28) with Judges 6:21-22; Judges 13:16; Judges 13:22. They appear, like the prophets and kings in subsequent times, in the character of God's ministers, carrying out God's purposes in relation to Israel and the pagan world powers (Zechariah 1; 2; 3; 4, etc.).

When the Lord of angels became flesh, they ministered before and at His birth (Luke 1; 2; Matthew 1:20), after the temptation (Matthew 4:11), in the agony of Gethsemane (Luke 22:43), at His resurrection and ascension (Matthew 28:2; Luke 24:4; John 20:12; Acts 1:10-11). Their previous and subsequent ministrations to men (Acts 5:19; Acts 8:26; Acts 10:3; Acts 12:7, Peter's deliverance, Acts 27:23) all hinge on their intimate connection with and ministry to Him, redeemed man's divine Head (Psalm 91:11; Matthew 4:6), Hence they are the guardians of Christ's little ones, not thinking it beneath their dignity to minister to them (Matthew 18:10); not attached singly to single individuals, but all or one ready at God's bidding to minister to each. (In Acts 12, the remark, "it is his Peter's angel," receives no countenance from Peter or the inspired writer of Acts, Luke; but is the uninspired guess of those in Mary's house.)

Rejoice over each recovered penitent (Luke 15:10); are present in Christian congregations (1 Corinthians 11:10); exercising some function in presenting the saints' prayers, incensed by Christ's merits, the one Mediator, before God (Revelation 8:3; Revelation 5:8); not to be prayed to, which is thrice forbidden (Revelation 19:10; Revelation 22:9; Colossians 2:18): when we send an offering to the King, the King's messenger durst not appropriate the King's exclusive due. Ministers of grace now, and at the dying hour carrying the believer's soul to paradise (Luke 16:22), but ministers of judgment, and gathering the elect, in the great day (Matthew 13:39; Matthew 13:41; Matthew 13:49; Matthew 16:27; Matthew 24:31). Their number is counted by myriad's (Hebrews 12:22; Greek "to myriads, namely the festal assembly of angels") (Deuteronomy 33:2; Psalm 68:17; Daniel 7:10; Judges 1:14).

There are various ranks, thrones, principalities, powers in the angelic kingdom of light, as there are also in Satan's kingdom of darkness (Ephesians 1:22; Ephesians 6:12; Colossians 1:16; Daniel 10:13; Daniel 12:1; Romans 8:38). (See SERAPHIM; CHERUBIM; MICHAEL; GABRIEL.) Some conjecture that angels had originally natural bodies, which have been developed into spiritual bodies, as the saints' bodies shall (1 Corinthians 15:40-46); for they in Scripture accept material food (Genesis 18) and appear in human form, and never dwell in men's bodies as the demons, who, naked and homeless, seek human bodies as their habitation (see Luke 20:36, "equal unto the angels": Philemon 3:20-21).

Many of the momentous issues of life are seen often to hinge upon seemingly slight incidents. Doubtless, besides the material instruments and visible agents, the invisible angels work in a marvelous way, under God's providence, guiding events at the crisis so as to carry out the foreordained end. They "desire to look into" the mysteries of redemption, and they learn "by the church the manifold wisdom of God" (Ephesians 3:10; 1 Peter 1:12). The saints (the living creatures and 24 elders) occupy the inner circle, the angels the outer circle, round the throne of the Lamb (Revelation 5:11).


ANGELS of the SEVEN CHURCHES and ANGEL [ISBE]

Angels of the Seven Churches
It is evident from the contexts of the various Biblical passages in which the word "angel" appears, that the word does not always represent the same idea. In such passages as Daniel 12:1 and Acts 12:15 it would seem that the angel was generally regarded as a superhuman being whose duty it was to guard a nation or an individual, not unlike the jenei of the Arabs.

However, in Malachi 2:7 and Malachi 3:1 (Hebrew) the word is clearly used to represent men.

In the New Testament also, there are passages, such as James 2:25 (Greek), in which the word seems to be applied to men.

The seven angels of the seven churches (Revelation 1:20) received seven letters, figurative letters, and therefore it would seem that the seven angels are also figurative and may refer to the seven bishops who presided over the seven churches of Asia. Or the angels may be regarded as the personifications of the churches.

E. J. Banks


ANGEL [Thompson Chain Reference]
 

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