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and some Wikipedia: Arabs, Arab Christians, Jewish tribes of Arabia (see Acts 2:11)

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*Joshua 3:16 (Sea of Arabah is another name for the Dead Sea)
The Arabah was part of the Great Rift Valley including the Jordan River valley south to the Dead Sea and on to the Gulf of Aqaba.
*1 Kings 10:15, 2 Chronicles 9:14 - Kings from Arabia paid revenue to Solomon while he was king of Israel
*2 Chronicles 17:11 - Arabs brought Jewish King Jehoshaphat flocks of rams and goats
*2 Chronicles 21:16 - the LORD aroused hostility from the Philistines and Arabs living near the Cushites against Jewish king Jehoram
*2 Chronicles 22:1 - Arabs and raiders killed all king Jehoram's older sons
*2 Chronicles 26:7 - Arabs living in Gur Baal fought against Jewish king Uzziah. So did Philistines and Meunites.
*Nehemiah 2:19-20 - When Geshem the Arab ridiculed the Jews rebuilding the burned and ruined Jerusalem, Nehemiah "answered them by saying, 'The God of heaven will give us success. We his servants will start rebuilding, but as for you, you have no share in Jerusalem or any claim or historic right to it.'"
*Nehemiah 4:7 - Arabs joined others in being angry that Jerusalem was being repaired.
*Nehemiah 6:1-3 - Geshem the Arab was one of several men who proposed a meeting on the plain of Ono with Nehemiah, who refused to meet while the work to rebuild Jerusalem was still going on.
*Isaiah 21:13-16 - prophecy against Arabia:
*caravans of Dedanites (an ancient Arab kingdom aka "Lihyan")
*people living in Tema (aka Tayma; an oasis in NW Saudi Arabia)
*Kedar's splendor will end.
*Kedar or Qedar was a largely nomadic, ancient Arab tribal confederation in north Arabia.
*Arab genealogists consider Ishmael to be an ancestral forefather of the Arab people, with one of his elder 2 sons, Nebaioth and Qedar, the ancestor of Muhammad, born 570 AD in Mecca, founder of Islam.)

Nabataean trade routes in Pre-Islamic Arabia
Also see Nabataean kingdom (Wikipedia)

*Isaiah 60:7 - Ishmael's firstborn, Nebaioth, and 2nd born son, Kedar are used as a metaphor for gentile nations
*Jeremiah 25:24 - kings of Arabia
*Ezekiel 27:21 - Arabia and all the princes of Kedar
*Ezekiel 30:1-5,10-11 - the whole area, including Egypt, Arabia, and the people of the covenant land will be defeated by the army of Nebuchanezzar
*Acts 2:11 - at Pentecost, Arab converts to Judaism were among those who heard about the wonders of God in their own language (tongue)
*Galatians 1:17-18 - Paul spend 3 years in Arabia before returning to Damascus, then Jerusalem to meet with Peter.
*Galatians 4:25 - "Now Hagar stands for Mount Sinai in Arabia and corresponds to the present city of Jerusalem, because she is in slavery with her children."

ARAB, ARABAH [Easton's Bible Dictionary]

Ambush, a city in the mountains of Judah (Joshua 15:52), now Er-Rabiyeh.
Plain, in the Revised Version of 2 Kings 14:25; Joshua 3:16; 8:14; 2Sam 2:29; 4:7 (in all these passages the A.V. has "plain"); Amos 6:14 (A.V. "wilderness"). This word is found in the Authorized Version only in Joshua 18:18. It denotes the hollow depression through which the Jordan flows from the Lake of Galilee to the Dead Sea. It is now called by the Arabs el-Ghor. But the Ghor is sometimes spoken of as extending 10 miles south of the Dead Sea, and thence to the Gulf of Akabah on the Red Sea is called the Wady el-Arabah.

ARAB, [Smith's Bible Dictionary]

a city of Judah in the mountainous district, probably in the neighborhood of Hebron; mentioned only in Joshua 15:62
(burnt up).
Although this word appears in the Authorized Version in its original shape only in (Joshua 18:18) yet in the Hebrew text it is of frequent occurrence. It indicates more particularly the deep-sunken valley or trench which forms the most striking among the many striking natural features of Palestine, and which extends with great uniformity of formation from the slopes of Hermon to the Elanitic Gulf (Gulf of Akabah ) of the Red Sea; the most remarkable depression known to exist on the surface of the globe. Through the northern portion of this extraordinary fissure the Jordan rushes through the lakes of Huleh and Gennesaret down its tortuous course to the deep chasm of the Dead Sea. This portion, about 150 miles in length, is known amongst the Arabs by the name of el-Ghor.

The southern boundary of the Ghor is the wall of cliffs which crosses the valley about 10 miles south of the Dead Sea.

From their summits, southward to the Gulf of Akabah, the valley changes its name, or, it would be more accurate to say, retains old name of Wady el-Arabah.

(desert, barren),
a country known in the Old Testament under two designations: --
The East Country, (Genesis 25:6) or perhaps the East, (Genesis 10:30; Numbers 23:7; Isaiah 2:6) and Land of the Sons of the East, (Genesis 29:1) Gentile name, Sons of the East , (Judges 6:3; 7:12; 1 Kings 4:30; Job 1:3; Isaiah 11:14; Jeremiah 49:28; Ezekiel 25:4) From these passages it appears that Land of the East and Sons of the East indicate, primarily, the country east of Palestine, and the tribes descended from Ishmael and from Keturah; and that this original signification may have become gradually extended to Arabia and its inhabitants generally, though without any strict limitation.

’Arab and ’Arab, whence Arabia. (2 Chronicles 9:14; Isaiah 21:13; Jeremiah 26:24; Ezekiel 27:21)

(Arabia is a triangular peninsula, included between the Mediterranean and Red seas, the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf. Its extreme length, north and south, is about 1300 miles, and its greatest breadth 1500 miles. -Encyc. Brit.)

Divisions .--Arabia may be divided into Arabia Proper , containing the whole peninsula as far as the limits of the northern deserts; Northern Arabia (Arabia Deserta), constituting the great desert of Arabia; and Western Arabia , the desert of Petra and the peninsula of Sinai, or the country that has been called Arabia Petraea , I. Arabia Proper , or the Arabian penninsula consists of high tableland, declining towards the north. Most of it is well peopled, watered by wells and streams, and enjoys periodical rains. The moist fertile tracts are those on the southwest and south. II. Northern Arabia , or the Arabian Desert, is a high, undulating, parched plain, of which the Euphrates forms the natural boundary from the Persian Gulf to the frontier of Syria, whence it is bounded by the latter country and the desert of Petra on the northwest and west, the peninsula of Arabia forming its southern limit. It has few oases, the water of the wells is generally either brackish or unpotable and it is visited by the sand-wind called Samoom . The inhabitants principally descended from Ishmael and from Keturah, have always led a wandering and pastoral life. They conducted a considerable trade of merchandise of Arabia and India from the shore of the Persian Gulf. (Ezekiel 27:20-24) III. Western Arabia includes the peninsula of Sinai [SINAI] and the desert of Petra; corresponding generally with the limits of Arabia Petraea. The latter name is probably derived from that of its chief city, not from its stony character. It was mostly peopled by descendants of Esau, and was generally known as the land of Edom or Idumea [EDOM], as well as by its older appellation, the desert of Seir or Mount Seir. [SEIR] Inhabitants .-- (Arabia, which once ruled from India to the Atlantic, now has eight or nine millions of inhabitants, about one-fifth of whom are Bedouin or wandering tribes, and the other four-fifths settled Arabs.--Encyc. Brit. ) The descendants of JOKTAN occupied the principal portions of the south and southwest of the peninsula, with colonies in the interior. The principal Joktanite kingdom, and the chief state of ancient Arabia, was that of the Yemen. The ISHMAELITES appear to have entered the peninsula from the northwest. That they have spread over the whole of it (with the exception of one or two districts on the south coast), and that the modern nation is predominantly Ishmaelite, is asserted by the Arabs. Of the descendants of KETURAH the Arabs say little. They appear to have settled chiefly north of the peninsula in Desert Arabia, from Palestine to the Persian Gulf. In northern and western Arabia are other peoples, which, from their geographical position and mode of life are sometimes classed with the Arabs, of these are AMALEK, the descendants of ESAU, etc. (Productions -- The productions are varied. The most noted animal is the horse. Camels, sheep, cattle, asses, mules and cats are common. Agricultural products are coffee, wheat, barley, millet, beans, pulse, dates and the common garden plants. In pasture lands Arabia is peculiarly fortunate. In mineral products it is singularly poor, lead being most abundant.--Encyc. Brit. )

Religion. --
The most ancient idolatry of the Arabs we must conclude to have been fetishism. Magianism, an importation from Chaldaea and Persia, must be reckoned among the religions of the pagan Arabs; but it never had very numerous followers. Christianity was introduced into southern Arabia toward the close of the second century, and about a century later it had made great progress. It flourished chiefly in the Yemen, where many churches were built. Judaism was propagated in Arabia, principally by Karaites, at the captivity. They are now nominally Mohammedans.

Language. --
Arabic the language of Arabia, is the most developed and the richest of Shemitic languages, and the only one of which we have an extensive literature; it is, therefore, of great importance to the study of Hebrew.

Government. --
Arabia is now under the government of the Ottoman empire.

ARAB [International Standard Bible Encyclopedia]

ARAB [Thompson Chain Reference]