BABYLON
Also see Nebuchadnezzar, Assyria, Syria, and Mesopotamia

Captivity, Persia

Mesopotamian States Timeline

References: Maps | Timeline
Easton's Bible Dictionary | Smith's Bible Dictionary | International Standard Bible Encyclopedia | Thompson Chain Reference

Maps of BABYLON


Ancient Near East cities
see Lower Mesopotamia

in the Assyrian
Empire
746-609

Babylonian, Median, and other
Oriental Empires, c. 600 B.C.

Neo Babylonian Empire

626 to 539 BC

Timeline of the Bible and the Babylonian Empire
Wikipedia: From Bronze to Iron Ages (c 1206-1150 BC) | Early Iron Age (1125 to 732 BC)
Neo-Assyrian Empire (934-608 BC) | Neo-Babylonian Empire (Chaldean Era) 627-539 BC | Babylonia (now Iraq)


* Median Empire (612-549 BC) Medes (Iran): "By the 6th century BC, after having together with the Babylonians defeated the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the Medes were able to establish their authority, lasting for about sixty years, from the sack of Nineveh in 612 BC until 549 BC when Cyrus the Great established the Achaemenid Empire by defeating Astyages, king of Media."

* Persian (now Iran) [More on Cyrus the Great and Persia, now Iran]

NEO (SECOND) BABYLONIAN EMPIRE: 626-539 BC (87 years)
  followed the Assyrian Empire 746-609 BC (137 years)

Major Cities: BABYLON was an ancient city between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and was the capitol of Babylonia; also NEHARDEA, SIPPAR, SURA, URUM
    International Standard Bible Encyclopedia notes that many of the exiled Jews lived in the city of NIPPUR, southeast of BABYLON in Sumer


c.658-605 BC: A Chaldean, Nabopolassar, founded the Neo (Second) Babylonian Empire after defeating Assyria.

    * He was king during the Iron Age
    * The people of Israel (northern kingdom) had been removed by the Assyrian Empire in 722 BC, before his reign
    * He was king during the reign of Josiah of Judah (641609 BC)


xxxxx to be continued xxxx

Dates from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

606 BC: Assyria's power ended with the last king of Assyria, Sin-sar-iskun, who died fighting the Scythians (See Wikipedia)

606 BC: Nineveh was destroyed beyond repair, never again to be inhabited (another source says 612 BC)

606 BC: Northern Babylonia was conquered by Nabopolassar, father of Nebuchadezzar II and viceroy of Babylon, who had joined the northern invaders

606 BC: At Carchemish, the Egyptian army was defeated by the Babylon army led by Nebuchadezzar
See: Jeremiah 2-12 described the Egyptian defeat by Babylon.

606 BC: Syria and Phoenicia were incorporated by Babylon.

559 BC: Cyrus became king of Persia (Elam)

500s BC: During Cyrus' reign, Assur, the old Assyrian capital, was reduced to a small town, but the sites of Nineveh and Calah were desolate, forgotten.

BABYLON, Kingdom of [Easton Bible Dictionary]

Called "the land of the Chaldeans" (Jeremiah 24:5; Ezek, 12:13), was an extensive province in Central Asia along the valley of the Tigris from the Persian Gulf northward for some 300 miles. It was famed for its fertility and its riches. Its capital was the city of Babylon, a great commercial centre (Ezekiel 17:4; Isaiah 43:14). Babylonia was divided into the two districts of Accad in the north, and Summer (probably the Shinar of the Old Testament) in the south. Among its chief cities may be mentioned Ur (now Mugheir or Mugayyar), on the western bank of the Euphrates; Uruk, or Erech (Genesis 10:10) (now Warka), between Ur and Babylon; Larsa (now Senkereh), the Ellasar of Genesis 14:1, a little to the east of Erech; Nipur (now Niffer), south-east of Babylon; Sepharvaim (2 Kings 17:24), "the two Sipparas" (now Abu-Habba), considerably to the north of Babylon; and Eridu, "the good city" (now Abu-Shahrein), which lay originally on the shore of the Persian Gulf, but is now, owing to the silting up of the sand, about 100 miles distant from it. Another city was Kulunu, or Calneh (Genesis 10:10).

The salt-marshes at the mouths of the Euphrates and Tigris were called Marratu, "the bitter" or "salt", the Merathaim of Jeremiah 50:21. They were the original home of the Kalda, or Chaldeans.

The most famous of the early kings of Babylonia were Sargon of Accad (B.C.3800) and his son, Naram-Sin, who conquered a large part of Western Asia, establishing their power in Palestine, and even carrying their arms to the Sinaitic peninsula. A great Babylonian library was founded in the reign of Sargon. Babylonia was subsequently again broken up into more than one state, and at one time fell under the domination of Elam. This was put an end to by Khammu-rabi (Amraphel), who drove the Elamites out of the country, and overcame Arioch, the son of an Elamite prince. From this time forward Babylonia was a united monarchy. About B.C. 1750 it was conquered by the Kassi, or Kosseans, from the mountains of Elam, and a Kassite dynasty ruled over it for 576 years and 9 months.

In the time of Khammu-rabi, Syria and Palestine were subject to Babylonia and its Elamite suzerain; and after the overthrow of the Elamite supremacy, the Babylonian kings continued to exercise their influence and power in what was called "the land of the Amorites." In the epoch of the Kassite dynasty, however, Canaan passed into the hands of Egypt.

In B.C. 729, Babylonia was conquered by the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III.; but on the death of Shalmaneser IV. it was seized by the Kalda or "Chaldean" prince Merodach-baladan (2 Kings 20:12-19), who held it till B.C. 709, when he was driven out by Sargon.

Under Sennacherib, Babylonia revolted from Assyria several times, with the help of the Elamites, and after one of these revolts Babylon was destroyed by Sennacherib, B.C. 689. It was rebuilt by Esarhaddon, who made it his residence during part of the year, and it was to Babylon that Manasseh was brought a prisoner (2 Chronicles 33:11). After the death of Esarhaddon, Saul-sumyukin, the viceroy of Babylonia, revolted against his brother the Assyrian king, and the revolt was suppressed with difficulty.

When Nineveh was destroyed, B.C. 606, Nabopolassar, the viceroy of Babylonia, who seems to have been of Chaldean descent, made himself independent. His son Nebuchadrezzar (Nabu-kudur-uzur), after defeating the Egyptians at Carchemish, succeeded him as king, B.C. 604, and founded the Babylonian empire. He strongly fortified Babylon, and adorned it with palaces and other buildings. His son, Evil-merodach, who succeeded him in B.C. 561, was murdered after a reign of two years. The last monarch of the Babylonian empire was Nabonidus (Nabu-nahid), B.C. 555-538, whose eldest son, Belshazzar (Bilu-sar-uzur), is mentioned in several inscriptions. Babylon was captured by Cyrus, B.C. 538, and though it revolted more than once in later years, it never succeeded in maintaining its independence.


BABYLON [Easton Bible Dictionary]

After passing through various vicissitudes the city was occupied by Cyrus, "king of Elam," B.C. 538, who issued a decree permitting the Jews to return to their own land (Ezra 1). It then ceased to be the capital of an empire. It was again and again visited by hostile armies, till its inhabitants were all driven from their homes, and the city became a complete desolation, its very site being forgotten from among men.

On the west bank of the Euphrates, about 50 miles south of Bagdad, there is found a series of artificial mounds of vast extent. These are the ruins of this once famous proud city. These ruins are principally

(1) the great mound called Babil by the Arabs. This was probably the noted Temple of Belus, which was a pyramid about 480 feet high.

(2) The Kasr (i.e., "the palace"). This was the great palace of Nebuchadnezzar. It is almost a square, each side of which is about 700 feet long. The little town of Hillah, near the site of Babylon, is built almost wholly of bricks taken from this single mound.

(3) A lofty mound, on the summit of which stands a modern tomb called Amran ibn-Ali. This is probably the most ancient portion of the remains of the city, and represents the ruins of the famous hanging-gardens, or perhaps of some royal palace.

The utter desolation of the city once called "The glory of kingdoms" (Isa.13:19) was foretold by the prophets (Isa.13:4-22; Jeremiah 25:12; 50:2,3; Daniel 2:31-38).

The Babylon mentioned in 1 Peter 5:13 was not Rome, as some have thought, but the literal city of Babylon, which was inhabited by many Jews at the time Peter wrote.

In Revelation 14:8; 16:19; 17:5; and 18:2, "Babylon" is supposed to mean Rome, not considered as pagan, but as the prolongation of the ancient power in the papal form. Rome, pagan and papal, is regarded as one power. "The literal Babylon was the beginner and supporter of tyranny and idolatry ... This city and its whole empire were taken by the Persians under Cyrus; the Persians were subdued by the Macedonians, and the Macedonians by the Romans; so that Rome succeeded to the power of old Babylon. And it was her method to adopt the worship of the false deities she had conquered; so that by her own act she became the heiress and successor of all the Babylonian idolatry, and of all that was introduced into it by the immediate successors of Babylon, and consequently of all the idolatry of the earth." Rome, or "mystical Babylon," is "that great city which reigneth over the kings of the earth" (17:18).


BABYLON [Smith Bible Dictionary]


BABYLON [ISBE]


BABYLON [Thompson Chain Reference]


BABYLON [BibleGateway Search NIV]
* 2 Kings 17:24, 30 and more


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