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What the scriptures say about
body tissue, skin, carnal nature, natural man, self
Easton's Bible Dictionary | Fausset's Bible Dictionary | International Standard Bible Encyclopedia | Thompson Chain Reference
Thorn, side | Snare, trap

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Genesis 2:21-24 - ("...bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh...")
Galatians 3:3 - "Are you so foolish? After beginning by means of the Spirit, are you now trying to finish by means of the flesh?"
("In contexts like this, the Greek word for flesh (sarx) refers to the sinful state of human beings, often presented as a power in opposition to the Spirit." NIV footnote)

FLESH [Easton's Bible Dictionary]

In the Old Testament denotes
(1) a particular part of the body of man and animals (Genesis 2:21; 41:2; Psalms 102:5, marg.);
(2) the whole body (Psalms 16:9);
(3) all living things having flesh, and particularly humanity as a whole (Genesis 6:12,13);
(4) mutability and weakness (2 Chronicles 32:8; Compare Isaiah 31:3; Psalms 78:39).
As suggesting the idea of softness it is used in the expression "heart of flesh" (Ezekiel 11:19).

The expression "my flesh and bone" (Judges 9:2; Isaiah 58:7) denotes relationship.

In the New Testament, besides these it is also used to denote the sinful element of human nature as opposed to the "Spirit" (Romans 6:19; Matthew 16:17). Being "in the flesh" means being unrenewed (Romans 7:5; 8:8,9), and to live "according to the flesh" is to live and act sinfully (Romans 8:4,5,7,12).

This word also denotes the human nature of Christ (John 1:14, "The Word was made flesh." Compare also 1 Timothy 3:16; Romans 1:3).

FLESH [Fausset's Bible Dictionary]

In an ethical sense opposed to "the spirit."
Genesis 6:3, "for that lie also (even the race of godly Seth) (is become) flesh (carnal)." When the salt of the church has lost its savor, the whole mass is corrupt and ripe for judgment. 1 Corinthians 1:26, "wise after the flesh," i.e. with wisdom acquired by mere human study without the Spirit. Contrast Matthew 16:17; Matthew 26:41. Not the body, which is not in itself sinful; it was through thinking it so that Gnostic ascetics mortified it by austerities, while all the while their seeming neglecting of the body was pampering "the flesh" (Colossians 2:21-23). "The flesh" is the natural man, including the unrenewed will and mind, moving in the world of self and sense only.

Self imposed ordinances gratify the flesh (i.e. self) while seemingly mortifying it. "Trouble in the flesh" is in their outward state, namely, through the present distress (1 Corinthians 7:28). So John 6:63, "it is the Spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing; the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit and are life." Not the outward flesh, but the word of Christ, is what gives life. So Peter understood Christ, as his reply shows: "Thou hast the words of eternal life." "To know Christ after the flesh" (2 Corinthians 5:16) means to know Him in His mere outward worldly relations, with a view to "glorying" in them (John 8:15; Philippians 3:3-10); as Judaizing Christians prided themselves on the fleshly advantage of belonging to Israel, the nation of Christ, or on having seen Him in the flesh, as a ground of superiority over others (2 Corinthians 11:18; 2 Corinthians 10:7).

Contrasted with knowing Him spiritually as new creatures (2 Corinthians 5:12; 2 Corinthians 5:15; 2 Corinthians 5:17). Outward rebellions toward Him profit nothing (Luke 8:19-21; John 16:7; John 16:22; Matthew 7:22-23). All outward distinctions are lost sight of in experiment, (re)ally knowing Him in His new resurrection life (Galatians 2:6; Galatians 2:20; Galatians 3:28; Romans 6:9-11; 1 Corinthians 15:45; 1 Peter 3:18; 1 Peter 4:1-2); disproving both Mariolatry and transubstantiation. In Romans 4:1, "what hath Abraham found, as pertaining to the flesh?" i.e. as respects carnal ordinances (circumcision). "All flesh," i.e. all men (Luke 3:2; John 17:2).

FLESH [International Standard Bible Encyclopedia]

@basar, she'er):

1. Etymology:

Used in all senses of the word, the latter, however, most frequently in the sense of kin, family, relationship (compare sha'arah, "kins-woman," Leviticus 18:17): Leviticus 18:6; 25:49; Proverbs 11:17; Jeremiah 51:35, and probably Psalms 73:26. In all other places she'er means "flesh" = body (Proverbs 5:11) or = food (Psalms 78:20,27; Micah 3:2-3). Tibhchah, is "(slaughtered) flesh for food," "butcher's meat" (1 Samuel 25:11). The word 'eshpar, found only in two parallel passages (2 Samuel 6:19 = 1 Chronicles 16:3), is of very uncertain meaning. The English versions translate it with "a good piece (portion) of flesh," the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) with "a piece of roast meat," others with "a portion of flesh" and "a measure of wine." It probably means simply "a measured portion." lachum, literally, "eaten," then food (compare lechem, "bread"), has been rarely specialized as flesh or meat (compare Arabic lachm, "meat," "flesh," so in Zephaniah 1:17, where it stands in parallelism with "blood"). The Greek terms are sarx, and kreas, the latter always meaning "butcher's meat" (Romans 14:21; 1 Corinthians 8:13).
We can distinguish the following varieties of meaning in Biblical language:

2. Ordinary Sense:

In a physical sense, the chief substance of the animal body, whether used for food and sacrifice, or not; also the flesh of man (Genesis 2:21; Exodus 21:10 m; Isaiah 31:3; Ezekiel 23:20; 1 Corinthians 15:39; Revelation 19:18,21).
3. The Body:
The whole body. This meaning is the extension of the preceding (pars pro toto). This is indicated by the Septuagint, where basar is often translated by the plural hai sarkes (Genesis 40:19; Numbers 12:12; Job 33:25), and occasionally by soma, i.e. "body" (Leviticus 15:2; 1 Kings 21:27). This meaning is also very clear in passages like the following: Exodus 4:7; Leviticus 17:14; Numbers 8:7; 2 Kings 4:34; Proverbs 5:11, where basar and she'er are combined; and Proverbs 14:30; Ecclesiastes 12:12.
4. The Term "All Flesh":
Flesh, as the common term for living things, animals and men, especially the latter (Genesis 6:13,17,19; Numbers 16:22; Jeremiah 12:12; Mark 13:20); often in the phrase "all flesh" (Psalms 65:2; Isaiah 40:5-6; Jeremiah 25:31; Ezekiel 20:48; Joel 2:28; Luke 3:6).
5. As Opposed to the Spirit:
Flesh as opposed to the spirit, both of which were comprised in the preceding meaning (Genesis 6:3; Psalms 16:9; Luke 24:39, where "flesh and bones" are combined; John 6:63). Thus we find in John 1:14, "The Word became flesh"; 1 Timothy 3:16, "He who was manifested in the flesh"; 1 John 4:2, and all passages where the incarnation of Christ is spoken of. The word in this sense approaches the meaning of "earthly life," as in Philippians 1:22,24, "to live in the flesh," "to abide in the flesh"; compare Philemon 1:16 and perhaps 2 Corinthians 5:16. Under this meaning we may enumerate expressions such as "arm of flesh" (2 Chronicles 32:8; Jeremiah 17:5), "eyes of flesh" (Job 10:4), etc. Frequently the distinction is made to emphasize the weakness or inferiority of the flesh, as opposed to the superiority of the spirit (Isaiah 31:3; Matthew 26:41; Mark 14:38; Romans 6:19). In this connection we mention also the expression "flesh and blood," a phrase borrowed from rabbinical writings and phraseology (see also Sirach 14:18, "the generation of flesh and blood," and 17:31, "man whose desire is flesh and blood" the King James Version). The expression does not convey, as some have supposed, the idea of inherent sinfulness of the flesh (a doctrine borrowed by Gnostic teachers from oriental sources), but merely the idea of ignorance and frailty in comparison with the possibilities of spiritual nature. The capabilities of our earthly constitution do not suffice to reveal unto us heavenly truths; these must always come to us from above. So Peter's first recognition of the Divine sonship of Jesus did not proceed from a logical conviction based upon outward facts acting upon his mind, but was based upon a revelation from God vouchsafed to his inner consciousness. Christ says therefore to him: "Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jonah: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father who is in heaven" (Matthew 16:17). Similarly the kingdom of God, being a realm of perfect spiritual submission to God, cannot be inherited by flesh and blood (1 Corinthians 15:50), nor was the richly endowed mind a competent tribunal to which Paul could refer his heaven-wrought conviction of his great salvation and the high calling to be a witness and apostle of Christ, so he did well that he "conferred not with flesh and blood" (Galatians 1:16). That "flesh and blood" does not imply a sense of inherent sinfulness is moreover shown in all passages where Christ is declared a partaker of such nature (Ephesians 6:12; Hebrews 2:14, where, however, we find in the original text the inverted phrase "blood and flesh").
6. Applied to the Carnal Nature:
Flesh in the sense of carnal nature (sarkikos, "carnal"; the King James Version uses sarkinos in Romans 7:14). Human nature, being inferior to the spiritual, is to be in subjection to it. If man refuses to be under this higher law, and as a free agent permits the lower nature to gain an ascendancy over the spirit, the "flesh" becomes a revolting force (Genesis 6:3,12; John 1:13; Romans 7:14; 1 Corinthians 3:1,3; Colossians 2:18; 1 John 2:16). Thus, the fleshly or carnal mind, i.e. a mind in subjection to carnal nature, is opposed to the Divine spirit, who alone is a sufficient corrective, Christ having secured for us the power of overcoming (Romans 8:3), if we manifest a deep desire and an earnest endeavor to overcome (Galatians 5:17-18).
7. In the Sense of Relationship:
Flesh in the sense of relationship, tribal connection, kith and kin. For examples, see what has been said above on Hebrew she'er. The following passages are a few of those in which basar is used: Genesis 2:24; 37:27; Job 2:5; compare the New Testament passages: Matthew 19:5-6; Romans 1:3; 9:3,5,8. The expressions "bone" and "flesh" are found in combination (Genesis 2:23; 29:14; Judges 9:2; 2 Samuel 5:1; 19:12-13; Ephesians 5:31, the latter in some manuscripts only).
8. Other Meanings:
Some other subdivisions of meanings might be added, for example where "flesh" takes almost the place of "person," as in Colossians 2:1: "as many as have not seen my face in the flesh," i.e. have not known me personally, or Colossians 2:5, "absent in the flesh, yet am I with you in the spirit," etc.
H. L. E. Luering

FLESH [Thompson Chain Reference]
General references to man's carnal nature

    Romans 7:18
    Romans 7:25
    Romans 8:8
    Romans 8:13
    Galatians 5:17
    Galatians 6:8
    1 John 2:16
    SEE Mind, Carnal-Spiritual
    SEE Appetites
    SEE Mortify the Flesh

Mortify the

    Matthew 5:29
    Matthew 18:8
    Romans 6:6
    Romans 8:13
    Romans 13:14
    Galatians 5:16
    Galatians 5:24
    Colossians 3:5
    1 Peter 2:11
    1 Peter 4:2
    SEE Evil
    SEE Self-control