ISRAEL
Name of nation of the Lord Yahweh's chosen people:
  Jewish exodus from Egypt - 1312 BCE
Name of country after Canaan conquered - 1272 BCE
Name of divided northern kingdom; Samaria capitol
Name of country after return from Babylonian exile
Second Temple built - 516 BCE | destroyed, scattered - 70 AD
Name of country re-established - 1948 AD, descendants return

Also see ISRAEL, for JACOB's new name (Gen 32:28, Gen 35:10)
Children of Israel | Genesis 12:3 | Palestine | Jews | Torah Timeline | "It's Our Land", by Benjamin Netanyahu

ISRAEL in scriptures [BibleGateway Search]

Cross Reference Bible links
2 Chronicles 13:16-18

ISRAEL, NIV links


ISRAEL [Easton Bible Dictionary]

Israel, Kingdom of

(B.C. 975-B.C. 722). Soon after the death of Solomon, Ahijah's prophecy (1 Kings 11:31-35) was fulfilled, and the kingdom was rent in twain. Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, was scarcely seated on his throne when the old jealousies between Judah and the other tribes broke out anew, and Jeroboam was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents (12:2,3). Rehoboam insolently refused to lighten the burdensome taxation and services which his father had imposed on his subjects (12:4), and the rebellion became complete. Ephraim and all Israel raised the old cry, "Every man to his tents, O Israel" (2 Samuel 20:1). Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:1-18; 2Chr. 10), and Jeroboam was proclaimed king over all Israel at Shechem, Judah and Benjamin remaining faithful to Solomon's son. War, with varying success, was carried on between the two kingdoms for about sixty years, till Jehoshaphat entered into an alliance with the house of Ahab.

Extent of the kingdom.

In the time of Solomon the area of Palestine, excluding the Phoenician territories on the shore of the Mediterranean, did not much exceed 13,000 square miles. The kingdom of Israel comprehended about 9,375 square miles. Shechem was the first capital of this kingdom (1 Kings 12:25), afterwards Tirza (14:17). Samaria was subsequently chosen as the capital (16:24), and continued to be so till the destruction of the kingdom by the Assyrians (2 Kings 17:5). During the siege of Samaria (which lasted for three years) by the Assyrians, Shalmaneser died and was succeeded by Sargon, who himself thus records the capture of that city: "Samaria I looked at, I captured; 27,280 men who dwelt in it I carried away" (2 Kings 17:6) into Assyria. Thus after a duration of two hundred and fifty-three years the kingdom of the ten tribes came to an end. They were scattered throughout the East. (See CAPTIVITY .)

"Judah held its ground against Assyria for yet one hundred and twenty-three years, and became the rallying-point of the dispersed of every tribe, and eventually gave its name to the whole race. Those of the people who in the last struggle escaped into the territories of Judah or other neighbouring countries naturally looked to Judah as the head and home of their race. And when Judah itself was carried off to Babylon, many of the exiled Israelites joined them from Assyria, and swelled that immense population which made Babylonia a second Palestine."

After the deportation of the ten tribes, the deserted land was colonized by various eastern tribes, whom the king of Assyria sent thither (Ezra 4:2,10; 2Kings 17:24-29). (See KINGS .)

In contrast with the kingdom of Judah is that of Israel.

# "There was no fixed capital and no religious centre.

# The army was often insubordinate.

# The succession was constantly interrupted, so that out of nineteen kings there were no less than nine dynasties, each ushered in by a revolution.

# The authorized priests left the kingdom in a body, and the priesthood established by Jeroboam had no divine sanction and no promise; it was corrupt at its very source." (Maclean's O. T. Hist.)


ISRAEL [Smith Bible Dictionary]

I. the kingdom. --
The prophet Ahijah of Shiloh, who was commissioned in the latter days of Solomon to announce the division of the kingdom, left one tribe (Judah) to the house of David, and assigned ten to Jeroboam. (1 Kings 11:31,35) These were probably Joseph (Ephraim and Manasseh), Issachar, Zebulun, Asher, Naphtali, Benjamin, Dan, Simeon, Gad and Reuben; Levi being intentionally omitted. Eventually the greater part of Benjamin, and probably the whole of Simeon and Dan, were included as if by common consent in the kingdom of Judah. With respect to the conquests of David, Moab appears to have been attached to the kingdom of Israel. (2 Kings 3:4) so much of Syria as remained subject to Solomon, see (1 Kings 11:24) would probably be claimed by his successor in the northern kingdom; and Ammon was at one time allied (2 Chronicles 20:1) we know not how closely or how early, with Moab. The seacoast between Accho and Japho remained in the possession of Israel. The whole population may perhaps have amounted to at least three and a half millions.

II. the capitals .

--Shechem was the first capital of the new kingdom. (1 Kings 12:25) Subsequently Tirzah became the royal residence, if not the capital, of Jeroboam (1 Kings 14:17) and of his successors. cf. (1 Kings 15:33; 16:8,17,23) Samaria was chosen by Omri. (1 Kings 16:24) Jezreel was probably only a royal residence of some of the Israelitish kings.

III. History .

--The kingdom of Israel lasted 254 years, from B.C. 975 to B.C. 721. The detailed history of the kingdom will be found under the names of its nineteen kings. See chart of the kings of Judah and Israel, at the end of the work. A summary view may be taken in four periods:

  • (a) B.C. 975-929. Jeroboam had not sufficient force of character in himself to make a lasting impression on his people. A king, but not a founder of a dynasty, he aimed at nothing beyond securing his present elevation. Baasha, in the midst of the army at Gibbethon, slew the son and successor of Jeroboam; Zimri, a captain of chariots, slew the son and successor of Baasha; Omri, the captain of the host, was chosen to punish Zimri; and after a civil war of four years he prevailed over Tibni, the choice of half the people.

  • (b) B.C. 929-884. For forty-five years Israel wag governed by the house of Omri. The princes of his house cultivated an alliance with the king of Judah which was cemented by the marriage of Jehoram and Athaliah. The adoption of Baal-worship led to a reaction in the nation, to the moral triumph of the prophets in the person of Elijah, and to extinction of the house of Ahab in obedience to the bidding of Elisha.

  • (c) B.C. 884-772. Unparalleled triumphs, but deeper humiliation, awaited the kingdom of Israel under the dynasty of Jehu. Hazael, the ablest king of Damascus, reduced Jehoahaz to the condition of a vassal, and triumphed for a time over both the disunited Hebrew kingdoms. Almost the first sign of the restoration of their strength was a war between them; and Jehoash, the grandson of Jehu, entered Jerusalem as the conqueror of Amaziah. Jehoash also turned the tide of war against the Syrians; and Jeroboam II., the most powerful of all the kings of of Israel, captured Damascus, and recovered the whole ancient frontier from Hamath to the Dead Sea. This short-lived greatness expired with the last king of Jehu’s line.

  • (d) B.C. 772-721. Military violence, it would seem, broke off the hereditary succession after the obscure and probably convulsed reign of Zachariah. An unsuccessful usurper, Shallum, is followed by the cruel Menahem, who, being unable to make head against the first attack of Assyria under Pul, became the agent of that monarch for the oppressive taxation of his subjects. Yet his power at home was sufficient to insure for his son and successor Pekahiah a ten-years reign, cut short by a bold usurper, Pekah. Abandoning the northern and transjordanic regions to the encroaching power of Assyria under Tiglath-pileser, he was very near subjugating Judah, with the help of Damascus, now the coequal ally of Israel. But Assyria interposing summarily put an end to the independence of Damascus, and perhaps was the indirect cause of the assassination of the baffled Pekah. The irresolute Hoshea, the next and last usurper, became tributary to his invaders Shalmaneser, betrayed the Assyrian to the rival monarchy of Egypt, and was punished by the loss of his liberty, and by the capture, after a three-years siege, of his strong capital, Samaria. Some gleanings of the ten tribes yet remained in the land after so many years of religious decline, moral debasement, national degradation, anarchy, bloodshed and deportation. Even these were gathered up by the conqueror and carried to Assyria, never again, as a distinct people, to occupy their portion of that goodly and pleasant land which their forefathers won under Joshua from the heathen. (Schaff Bib. Dic.) adds to this summary that "after the destruction of the kingdom of Israel, B.C. 721, the name ’Israel’ began to be applied to the whole surviving people. No doubt many of the kingdom of Israel joined the later kingdom of the Jews after the captivity, and became part of that kingdom.--ED.)


ISRAEL, Kingdom of [ISBE]


ISRAEL [Thompson Chain Reference]
# Name given to Jacob

    * Genesis 32:28
    * Genesis 35:10
    * 2 Kings 17:34
    
# Name given to God's Chosen People

    * Exodus 6:7
    * Numbers 23:9
    * Deuteronomy 4:37
    * 2 Samuel 7:23
    * Psalms 135:4
    * Isaiah 43:1
    * Isaiah 45:4
    
# A TYPE OF THE TRUE CHURCH when obedient

    * Called to Separation
          o SEE Separation

    * Exalted to a High Position
          o Deuteronomy 26:19
          o Deuteronomy 28:1
          o Deuteronomy 28:13
          o Deuteronomy 32:13
          o Deuteronomy 33:29
          o Isaiah 14:2
          o Isaiah 45:14
          o Isaiah 49:23
          o Isaiah 60:14
          
    * Victorious in Battle
          o Genesis 14:15
          o Exodus 14:30
          o Joshua 6:20
          o Joshua 10:11
          o Judges 7:21
          o 1 Samuel 7:10
          o 1 Samuel 11:11
          o 1 Samuel 17:51
          o 2 Samuel 10:18
          o 2 Samuel 23:10
          o 2 Chronicles 20:27
          
    * Promised Special Immunity from Calamities
          o Exodus 8:22
          o Exodus 9:6
          o Exodus 9:26
          o Exodus 11:7
          o Exodus 12:13
          o Exodus 15:26
          o Psalms 91:7
          o Mark 16:18
          
# A Type of the Apostate Church when Disobedient

    * Lost the Joy of Divine Favour
          o Isaiah 24:11
          o Jeremiah 7:34
          o Jeremiah 16:9
          o Jeremiah 25:10
          o Lamentations 5:15
          o Ezekiel 26:13
          o Hosea 2:11
          o Amos 8:10
          o Revelation 18:23

    * Compared to an Unfruitful Vine
          o Psalms 80:8
          o Isaiah 5:2
          o Jeremiah 2:21
          o Ezekiel 15:6
          o Ezekiel 17:6
          o Ezekiel 19:10
          o Hosea 10:1
          
    * Characterized as an Adulteress
          o Judges 2:17
          o Judges 8:27
          o 1 Chronicles 5:25
          o Psalms 106:39
          o Ezekiel 6:9
          o Ezekiel 20:30
          o Ezekiel 23:35
          o Hosea 4:12
          o Hosea 5:4
          o Hosea 9:1
          
    * Threatened with Reprobation
          o Leviticus 26:17
          o Deuteronomy 28:15
          o Deuteronomy 31:17
          o 1 Kings 14:16
          o Jeremiah 7:15
          o Jeremiah 15:1
          o Hosea 9:17
          o 2 Thessalonians 2:12
                    
    * Became a By-word to Neighbouring Nations
          o Deuteronomy 28:37
          o 1 Kings 9:7
          o Psalms 44:14
          o Jeremiah 24:9
          o Ezekiel 22:4

    * Defeated in Battle
          o Joshua 7:4
          o Judges 3:13
          o 1 Samuel 4:2
          o 1 Samuel 4:17
          o 1 Samuel 31:3
          o 2 Samuel 1:4
          o Psalms 44:10
          
    * Humbled into the Dust
          o Exodus 1:13
          o Leviticus 26:17
          o Deuteronomy 28:48
          o Judges 3:14
          o Judges 6:2
          o 1 Samuel 17:11
          o 2 Kings 17:20
          o Ezra 9:7
          o Nehemiah 9:28
          o Isaiah 3:4
          o Isaiah 51:23
          
    * Utterly Cut Off
          o Hosea 9:17
          o Matthew 21:43
          o Luke 14:24
          o Luke 20:16
          o Romans 11:17
          
    * Carried into Bondage
          o Exodus 1:11
          o Exodus 2:11
          o Exodus 2:23
          o Exodus 5:4
          o Numbers 20:15
          o Psalms 105:25
          o Acts 7:6
          
# Adultery of

    * Judges 2:17
    * Judges 8:27
    * 1 Chronicles 5:25
    * Psalms 106:39
    * Ezekiel 6:9
    * Ezekiel 20:30
    * Ezekiel 23:35
    * Hosea 4:12
    * Hosea 5:4
    * Hosea 9:1
    
# Bondage of

    * Exodus 1:11
    * Exodus 2:11
    * Exodus 2:23
    * Exodus 5:4
    * Numbers 20:15
    * Psalms 105:25
    * Acts 7:6
    
# Became a By-word to Neighbouring Nations

    * Deuteronomy 28:37
    * 1 Kings 9:7
    * Psalms 44:14
    * Jeremiah 24:9
    * Ezekiel 22:4

# Calamities of

    * 1 Kings 14:25
    * 2 Kings 14:13
    * 2 Kings 16:5
    * 2 Kings 24:10
    * 2 Chronicles 25:23
    * Psalms 79:1
    * Lamentations 1:1
    
# Captivity of

    * Foretold
          o Deuteronomy 28:36
          o 1 Kings 14:15
          o Isaiah 39:7
          o Jeremiah 13:19
          o Amos 7:11
          o Luke 21:24
         
    * Fulfilment of Prophecies Concerning
          o 2 Kings 15:29
          o 2 Kings 17:6
          o 2 Kings 18:11
          o 2 Kings 24:14
          o 2 Kings 25:11
          o 2 Chronicles 28:5
          
# Conquests of

    (of the heathen by Israel)
    * Joshua 6:20
    * Joshua 8:24
    * Joshua 10:28
    * Joshua 10:39
    * Joshua 11:8
    * Joshua 11:23
    * Joshua 12:7
    * Judges 1:8
    * Judges 3:30
    * Judges 4:16
    * Judges 8:28
    * Judges 9:45
    * Judges 11:33

# Cut off

    * Hosea 9:17
    * Matthew 21:43
    * Luke 14:24
    * Luke 20:16
    * Romans 11:17
    
# Defeats of

    * Joshua 7:4
    * Judges 3:13
    * 1 Samuel 4:2
    * 1 Samuel 4:17
    * 1 Samuel 31:3
    * 2 Samuel 1:4
    * Psalms 44:10
    
# Defence of in battle

    * Promised to Believers
          o 2 Chronicles 16:9
          o Psalms 34:7
          o Psalms 41:2
          o Psalms 91:4
          o Psalms 125:2
          o Zechariah 2:5
          o Luke 21:18
          
    * Examples of
          o Genesis 35:5
          o Exodus 14:20
          o 2 Kings 6:17
          o Ezra 8:31
          o Daniel 6:22
          o Revelation 7:3
          
# Dispersion of

    * Leviticus 26:33
    * Nehemiah 1:8
    * Esther 3:8
    * Psalms 44:11
    * Ezekiel 6:8
    * Ezekiel 36:19
    * John 7:35
    * James 1:1
    
# Exalted

    * Deuteronomy 26:19
    * Deuteronomy 28:1
    * Deuteronomy 28:13
    * Deuteronomy 32:13
    * Deuteronomy 33:29
    * Isaiah 14:2
    * Isaiah 45:14
    * Isaiah 49:23
    * Isaiah 60:14
    
# Humbled

    Humbled into the Dust
          o Exodus 1:13
          o Leviticus 26:17
          o Deuteronomy 28:48
          o Judges 3:14
          o Judges 6:2
          o 1 Samuel 17:11
          o 2 Kings 17:20
          o Ezra 9:7
          o Nehemiah 9:28
          o Isaiah 3:4
          o Isaiah 51:23
          
# Inheritance of

    * Leviticus 20:24
    * Deuteronomy 1:38
    * Joshua 1:6
    * Joshua 12:6
    * Joshua 13:6
    * Joshua 14:2
    * Joshua 24:28
    
# Joy of, Departed

    * Isaiah 24:11
    * Jeremiah 7:34
    * Jeremiah 16:9
    * Jeremiah 25:10
    * Lamentations 5:15
    * Ezekiel 26:13
    * Hosea 2:11
    * Amos 8:10
    * Revelation 18:23

# Judges of

    * General References to
          o Exodus 18:13
          o Deuteronomy 1:16
          o Deuteronomy 16:18
          o Deuteronomy 25:1
          o 1 Samuel 2:25
          o 1 Samuel 7:16
          o 2 Chronicles 19:5
          o Matthew 5:25
          o Luke 18:2

    * Names of the Rulers before Saul was Anointed king
          o 1. Othniel
                + Judges 3:9
          o 2. Ehud
                + Judges 3:15
          o 3. Shamgar
                + Judges 3:31
          o 4. Deborah
                + Judges 4:5
          o 5. Gideon
                + Judges 6:36
          o 6. Abimelech
                + Judges 9:1
          o 7. Tola
                + Judges 10:1
          o 8. Jair
                + Judges 10:3
          o 9. Jephthah
                + Judges 11:11
          o 10. Ibzan
                + Judges 12:8
          o 11. Elon
                + Judges 12:11
          o 12. Abdon
                + Judges 12:13
          o 13. Samson
                + Judges 16:30
          o 14. Eli
                + SEE Eli
                + 1 Samuel 4:18
          o 15. Samuel
                + SEE Samuel
                + 1 Samuel 7:15
          o Kings before the Division of the Kingdom
                + SEE Saul of Tarsus
                + SEE David
                + SEE Solomon

# Kings of

    * 1. Jeroboam (1)
          o 1 Kings 11:28
    * 2. Nadab
          o 1 Kings 14:20
    * 3. Baasha
          o 1 Kings 15:16
    * 4. Elah
          o 1 Kings 16:8
    * 5. Zimri
          o 1 Kings 16:15
    * 6. Omri
          o 1 Kings 16:16
    * 7. Ahab
          o 1 Kings 16:29
    * 8. Ahaziah (b)
          o 1 Kings 22:40
    * 9. Jehoram (b), or Joram
          o 2 Kings 1:17
    * 10. Jehu
          o 1 Kings 19:16
    * 11. Jehoahaz (a)
          o 2 Kings 10:35
    * 12. Jehoash (b)
          o 2 Kings 13:10
    * 13. Jeroboam (2)
          o 2 Kings 14:23
    * 14. Zachariah
          o 2 Kings 14:29
    * 15. Shallum (a)
          o 2 Kings 15:10
    * 16. Menahem
          o 2 Kings 15:14
    * 17. Pekahiah
          o 2 Kings 15:23
    * 18. Pekah
          o 2 Kings 15:25
    * 19. Hoshea
          o 2 Kings 15:30

# KINGS OF JUDAH

    * 1. Rehoboam
          o 1 Kings 11:43
    * 2. Abijam, or Abijah
          o 1 Kings 14:31
    * 3. Asa
          o 1 Kings 15:8
    * 4. Jehoshaphat
          o 1 Kings 15:24
    * 5. Jehoram (a)
          o 2 Chronicles 21:1
    * 6. Ahaziah (a)
          o 2 Kings 8:25
    * 7. Athaliah (Queen)
          o 2 Kings 8:26
    * 8. Joash, or Jehoash (a)
          o 2 Kings 11:2
    * 9. Amaziah
          o 2 Kings 14:1
    * 10. Uzziah, or Azariah
          o 2 Kings 14:21
    * 11. Jotham
          o 2 Kings 15:5
    * 12. Ahaz
          o 2 Kings 15:38
    * 13. Hezekiah
          o 2 Kings 16:20
    * 14. Manasseh
          o 2 Kings 21:1
    * 15. Amon
          o 2 Kings 21:19
    * 16. Josiah
          o 1 Kings 13:2
    * 17. Jehoahaz (c), or Shallum
          o 2 Kings 23:30
    * 18. Jehoiakim
          o 2 Kings 23:34
    * 19. Jehoiachin, or Jeconiah
          o 2 Kings 24:6
    * 20. Zedekiah, or Mattaniah
          o 2 Kings 24:17

# Murmurings of

    * Exodus 14:11
    * Exodus 15:24
    * Exodus 16:2
    * Exodus 17:3
    * Numbers 11:1
    * Numbers 14:27
    * Numbers 20:3
    * Numbers 21:5
    * Psalms 77:3
    * Jude 1:16
# Persecution of

    * 2 Kings 16:6
    * Esther 3:13
    * Psalms 74:8
    * Psalms 83:4
    * Daniel 3:8
    * Acts 16:20
    * Acts 18:2

# Promises to

  (Promised Special Immunity from Calamities)
    * Exodus 8:22
    * Exodus 9:6
    * Exodus 9:26
    * Exodus 11:7
    * Exodus 12:13
    * Exodus 15:26
    * Psalms 91:7
    * Mark 16:18
    
# Remnant of

    * Isaiah 1:9
    * Isaiah 4:3
    * Isaiah 11:16
    * Isaiah 37:4
    * Jeremiah 6:9
    * Jeremiah 23:3
    * Jeremiah 31:7
    * Ezekiel 14:22
    * Micah 2:12
    * Zephaniah 2:9
    * Romans 9:27
    * Romans 11:5

# Reprobation of

    * Leviticus 26:17
    * Deuteronomy 28:15
    * Deuteronomy 31:17
    * 1 Kings 14:16
    * Jeremiah 7:15
    * Jeremiah 15:1
    * Hosea 9:17
    * 2 Thessalonians 2:12
    
# Restoration of

    * Isaiah 1:26
    * Isaiah 11:12
    * Isaiah 27:13
    * Isaiah 33:20
    * Isaiah 40:2
    * Isaiah 49:22
    * Isaiah 60:10
    * Ezekiel 20:40
    * Ezekiel 36:8
    * Zechariah 1:17
    * Zechariah 10:6
    * Zechariah 14:11
    * Malachi 3:4
    
# Return of

    * Deuteronomy 30:3
    * Isaiah 11:11
    * Jeremiah 16:15
    * Jeremiah 23:3
    * Zephaniah 3:20
    * Zechariah 10:10
    
# Separation of Israel

    from the heathen, enjoined
    * Exodus 33:16
    * Leviticus 20:26
    * Numbers 23:9
    * Deuteronomy 7:2
    * Joshua 23:7
    * Judges 2:2
    * Ezra 9:12
    * Ezra 10:11
    * Jeremiah 15:19
    
# Theocracy of

    * Exodus 19:8
    * Numbers 9:18
    * Deuteronomy 29:12
    * Judges 8:23
    * 1 Samuel 8:7
    * 1 Samuel 12:12

# Victories of

    * Genesis 14:15
    * Exodus 14:30
    * Joshua 6:20
    * Joshua 10:11
    * Judges 7:21
    * 1 Samuel 7:10
    * 1 Samuel 11:11
    * 1 Samuel 17:51
    * 2 Samuel 10:18
    * 2 Samuel 23:10
    * 2 Chronicles 20:27
    
# Vine, a

    * Psalms 80:8
    * Isaiah 5:2
    * Jeremiah 2:21
    * Ezekiel 15:6
    * Ezekiel 17:6
    * Ezekiel 19:10
    * Hosea 10:1

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