What the scriptures say about
Hearing, examining, deciding, forming an opinion of, ruling, thinking, condemning
Also see the Book of Judges | Judge | Judgment
Easton's Bible Dictionary | International Standard Bible Encyclopedia | Thompson Chain Reference

JUDGING in scriptures [BibleGateway Search]   Site search: FreeFind

select Cross Reference Bible links   "In those days Israel had no king; everyone did as he saw fit." Judges 17:6 and 21:25
  One function of a ruler is judging:
* Exodus 6:6   evidence of God's rule over disobedient people are acts of judgment
* Exodus 18:20-22   during the Exodus, law taught, then judging organized by small groups
* Leviticus 19:15   judge your neighbor fairly; don't pervert justice
* 2Chronicles 19:6   be careful - those giving verdicts are judging not for man, but for the Lord  
* Isaiah 16:5   in judging seek justice
  Principals of New Testament - judging each other:
* Matthew 5:21-25   settle matters quickly between you and your adversary out of court  
* Acts 12:12-19ff   James judged Peter's appeal for Gentile believers per scriptures
* Matthew 7:1-6   in the same way you judge others, you will be judged
* Luke 6:37   do not judge, do not condemn; instead, forgive
* Colossians 2:16   don't let others judge you in eating, drinking, celebrations...
* Luke 7:24   "Stop judging by mere appearances and make a right judgment"
* Luke 7:43   "You have judged correctly"
* John 8:15-16   "I pass judgment on no one, but if I do judge...."
  GOD's Final Judgment Approaches
* John 9:39   |   John 12:31   |   John 12:47-48   |   John 16:8,11   |   2Thess 2:8-12  
Principals of New Testament - judging for myself:
  We judge for ourselves what is right, not wrong:
* Luke 12:57-58  * Romans 12:3  

  We judge for ourselves by God's truth over man's:
* Luke 12:13-15   Jesus didn't come to arbitrate
financial inheritance. Judge yourself by God's truth
* Acts 4:19 each is responsible to judge and act on
what is right in God's sight

  We are judged by our own words:
Matthew 12:36   Luke 19:22  

  We are judged by words & experiences of others living at same time:
Matthew 12:41-42   Luke 11:31  

  We are judged by God's word for His guidance:
John 5:24-30   John 12:48   | Ecclesiastes 3:17 | Eccl 12:14

JUDGMENT, The Final [Easton's Bible Dictionary]

The sentence that will be passed on our actions at the last day (Matthew 25; Romans 14:10,11; 2co 5:10; 2th 1:7-10).

The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator. All judgment is committed to him (Acts 17:31; John 5:22,27; Revelation 1:7). "It pertains to him as mediator to complete and publicly manifest the salvation of his people and the overthrow of his enemies, together with the glorious righteousness of his work in both respects."

The persons to be judged are,

(1) the whole race of Adam without a single exception (Matthew 25:31-46; 1 Corinthians 15:51,52; Revelation 20:11-15); and

(2) the fallen angels (2 Peter 2:4; Jude 1:6).

The rule of judgment is the standard of God's law as revealed to men, the heathen by the law as written on their hearts (Luke 12:47,48; Romans 2:12-16); the Jew who "sinned in the law shall be judged by the law" (Romans 2:12); the Christian enjoying the light of revelation, by the will of God as made known to him (Matthew 11:20-24; John 3:19). Then the secrets of all hearts will be brought to light (1 Corinthians 4:5; Luke 8:17; 12:2,3) to vindicate the justice of the sentence pronounced.

The time of the judgment will be after the resurrection (Hebrews 9:27; Acts 17:31).

As the Scriptures represent the final judgment "as certain [Eccl 11:9], universal [ 2 Corinthians 5:10], righteous [ Romans 2:5], decisive [ 1 Corinthians 15:52], and eternal as to its consequences [ Hebrews 6:2], let us be concerned for the welfare of our immortal interests, flee to the refuge set before us, improve our precious time, depend on the merits of the Redeemer, and adhere to the dictates of the divine word, that we may be found of him in peace."

JUDGING, JUDGMENT [International Standard Bible Encyclopedia]

juj'-ing, juj'-ment:

Often in the Old Testament for "to act as a magistrate" (Exodus 18:13; Deuteronomy 1:16; 16:18, etc.), justice being administered generally by "elders" (Exodus 18:13-27), or "kings" (1 Samuel 8:20) or "priests" (Deuteronomy 18:15); applied to God as the Supreme Judge (Psalms 9:7-8; 10:18; 96:13; Micah 4:3, etc.; Psalms 7:8: "Yahweh ministereth judgment," vividly describes a court scene, with Yahweh as Judge).

Often in the New Testament, ethically, for

(1) "to decide," "give a verdict," "declare an opinion" (Greek krino);

(2) "to investigate," "scrutinize" (Greek anakrino);

(3) "to discriminate," "distinguish" (Greek diakrino).

For (1), see Luke 7:43; Acts 15:19;

for (2) see 1 Corinthians 2:15; 4:3;

for (3)see 1 Corinthians 11:31; 14:29 m.

Used also forensically in Luke 22:30; Acts 25:10; and applied to God in John 5:22; Hebrews 10:30.

The judgments of God are the expression of His justice, the formal declarations of His judgments, whether embodied in words (Deuteronomy 5:1 the King James Version, the Revised Version (British and American) "statutes"), or deeds (Exodus 6:6; Revelation 16:7), or in decisions that are yet to be published (Psalms 36:6). Man's consciousness of guilt inevitably associates God's judgments as declarations of the Divine justice, with his own condemnation, i.e. he knows that a strict exercise of justice means his condemnation, and thus "judgment" and "condemnation" become in his mind synonymous (Romans 5:16); hence, the prayer of Psalms 143:2, "Enter not into judgment"; also, John 6:29, "the resurrection of judgment" (the King James Version "damnation"); 1 Corinthians 11:29, "eateth and drinketh judgment" (the King James Version "damnation").

H. E. Jacobs

JUDGMENT, LAST [International Standard Bible Encyclopedia]

1. A Transcendental Doctrine:
In Christian theology the Last Judgment is an act in which God interposes directly into human history, brings the course of this world to a final close, determines the eternal fate of human beings, and places them in surroundings spiritually adapted to their final condition. The concept is purely transcendental, and is to be distinguished from the hope that God will interfere in the history of this world to determine it undeviatingly toward good. The transcendental doctrine is possible only when an exalted idea of God has been attained, although it may afterward be united with crasser theories, as in certain naive conceptions of Christianity at the present day.
2. The Doctrine in the Religion of Israel:
In the religion of Israel, the doctrine of the Last Judgment arose from "transcendentalizing" the concept of the "Day of the Lord." Just as hope of immortality replaced desire for length of days on earth, just the as for "the rejuvenation of Palestine" was substituted "an eternal abode in a new earth," so the ideal of a military victory over Israel's enemies expanded into God's solemn condemnation of evil. The concept thus strictly defined is hardly to be sought in the Old Testament, but Daniel 12:1-3 may contain it. The first unequivocal assertion would appear to be in Enoch 91:17, where the final state is contrasted with a preceding reign of earthly happiness. (If there has been no redaction in the latter part of this section, its date is prior to 165 BC.) Hereafter the idea is so prevalent in the Jewish writings that detailed reference is needless. But it is by no means universal. Writings touched with Greek thought (En 108; 4 Macc; Philo) are content with an individual judgment at death. A unique theory is that of the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs (Leviticus 18:8-14, e.g.), where the world grows into final blessedness without catastrophe. But much more common is the persistence of the non-transcendental ideas, ingrained as they were in the thought of the people (even in Philo; compare his prophecy of national earthly glory in Exodus 9). This type of thought was so tenacious that it held its own alongside of the transcendental, and both points of view were accepted by more than one writer. Then the earthly happiness precedes the heavenly (as in Enoch 91), and there are two judgments, one by the Messiah and the other by God (2 Esdras 7; Syriac Baruch 30). So in Revelation 19 where Christ overcomes the enemies in battle-symbolism and establishes the Millennium, while the Last Judgment is held by God (20:11 ff). Otherwise the Messiah is never the judge except in the Parables of Enoch, where He appears as God's vicar uniformly (in 47:3 God fixes the time of judgment only). Possibly in The Wisdom of Solomon 4:16; 5:1 men share in the judgment-act but otherwise they (and angels) appear only as "assessors" or as executors of the sentence. In The Wisdom of Solomon 3:8, "judging" is used in the Old Testament sense of "rule" (Judges 3:10, etc.), as is the case in Matthew 19:28 parallel Luke 22:30; 1 Corinthians 6:2-3 (in the last case with the word in two senses). Further studies in the variation of the (rather conventionally fixed) details of the judgment will interest the special student only.

For discussions of the relevant Biblical passages, see DAY OF THE LORD (YAHWEH) ; ESCHATOLOGY ; PAROUSIA . The doctrine has real religious value, for it insists on a culmination in the evolution (or degeneration!) of the race as well as of the individual. So it is contrasted with the pessimism of natural science, which points only toward the gradual extinction of humanity through the cooling of the sun.


The variations of the concept are treated, fully only in Volz, Judische Eschatologie. For general literature see ESCHATOLOGY ; PAROUSIA .

Burton Scott Easton

JUDGMENT [Thompson Chain Reference]
# According to Privilege

    * Matthew 11:22
    * Mark 6:11
    * Luke 12:48
    * John 3:19
    * John 9:41
    * John 15:22
    * Romans 2:12
    * SEE Responsibility
    * SEE Stewardship

# According to Works

    * Psalms 62:12
    * Proverbs 24:12
    * Jeremiah 17:10
    * Jeremiah 32:19
    * Ezekiel 18:30
    * Matthew 16:27
    * Romans 2:6
    * 2 Corinthians 5:10
    * 1 Peter 1:17
    * Revelation 2:23
    * Revelation 20:12
    * Revelation 22:12
    * SEE Accountability
    * SEE Impartiality, Divine

# Forbidden

    * Matthew 7:1
    * Romans 2:1
    * Romans 14:4
    * Romans 14:13
    * 1 Corinthians 4:5
    * James 4:12
    * SEE Mercy
    * Christ's Command
          o Matthew 7:1
          o Matthew 7:2
    * Inexcusable
          o Romans 2:1
    * Not our prerogative
          o Romans 14:4
    * Judge our own lives
          o Romans 14:13
    * Because not acquainted with all facts
          o 1 Corinthians 4:5
    * It is assuming too much
          o James 4:12

# Last, The

    * General References to
    * Matthew 25:31
    * Matthew 25:32
    * 2 Corinthians 5:10
    * Hebrews 9:27
    * 2 Peter 2:9
    * 2 Peter 3:7
    * 1 John 4:17
    * Jude 1:14
    * Jude 1:15
    * Revelation 20:12
    * SEE Day
    * SEE Day 

# Line of

    * (the divine)
    * 2 Kings 21:13
    * Isaiah 28:17
    * Isaiah 34:11
    * Lamentations 2:8
    * Amos 7:8

# Universal

    * Matthew 25:32
    * Acts 17:31
    * Romans 2:16
    * Romans 14:12
    * 2 Corinthians 5:10
    * Revelation 20:12 

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