EVENT: In 589 BC, Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon laid siege to Jerusalem and defiled the temple NOTE: Jeremiah is believed to have written the poems for the book of Lamentations that same year.
Lamentations 4 (22vs)
- "How is the gold become dim! how is the most pure gold changed! The stones of the sanctuary are poured out at the head of every street.."
Lamentations 5 (22vs)
- "Remember, Yahweh, what has come on us:
Look, and see our reproach.."
EVENT: In 589 BC, Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon appointed Gedaliah as governor of the land of Judah
Jeremiah 40 (16vs)
- "The word which came to Jeremiah from Yahweh, after that Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard had let him go from Ramah, when he had taken him being bound in chains among all the captives of Jerusalem and Judah, who were carried away captive to Babylon.."
2 Kings 25:22-26 (5vs)
- Nebuchadnezzar appointed Gedaliah (son of Ahikam, son of Shaphan) to be governor of the land of Judah.
Second Empire of ASSYRIA with maps; 746-609 BC * Assyria Timeline Chart * The ancient city
NINEVEH on the Tigris River was the capital
* Founding king Tiglath Pileser, 745–727 BC, ruled during reigns of Menehem (Israel) and Uzziah (Judah)
* By 722 BC, the people of Israel had been moved and the land had become part of Assyria
* Conquered by Assyria in 717 BC, the Syrian city of Carchemish was on the west bank of the Euphrates River
* Waning Assyrian Power (D. Bratcher)
* In 609 BC, Assyria had weakened and fallen to Babylon
* About 604 BC, Carchemish was the scene of Egypt's defeat (King Necho II) by Babylonia (King Nebuchadnezzar II)
NEO BABYLONIAN Empire with maps; ca. 627-539 BC
* Nebuchadnezzar II's father, Nabopolassar, established the Chaldean era of the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 626 BC, rebelling against Assyria
* Nabopolassar was king when the Assyrian capital Ninevah was sacked (612 BC)
* Nebuchadnezzar had been the Chaldean king of the Babylonian Empire 19 years when Jerusalem fell in 586 BC
* In 586 BC, almost all the remaining Jews of Judah were taken from the Promised Land northeast into the captivity promised by their God.
EGYPT, JUDAH, BABYLON
* 610 BC
Pharaoh Necho II began his reign (610-595 BC)
* 609 BC
on Necho's way to meet the Babylonians at Carchemish in Syria, Judah's King Josiah tried to stop Egypt from the intended battle. Josiah was killed at Megiddo and buried at Jerusalem.
* From 609-605 BC
Judah was under Egyptian control after the death of King Josiah. Pharaoh Necho established Josiah's second son Jehoiakim the puppet king of Judah.
* Egypt maintained an outpost in the northern Syria city of Carchemish
* In 605 BC
Nebuchadezzar drove Egypt out of Carchemish and south toward Palestine (coastal Philistine territory). At this time Nebuchadezzar became sole king of Babylonia at the death of his father and co-reigner, Nabopolasser.
Jehoiakim of Judah switched loyalties from Egypt to Babylonia as the latter moved into the coastal Philistine territory, northeast of Egypt and southwest of Judah.
* By 601 BC
Having gone through Phlistine land, Nebuchadezzar fought Egypt, led by Pharaoh Necho, but Babylonia - unable to conquer Egypt - soon returned home.
* Seeing Egypt's apparent victory, Jehoiakim of Judah switched loyalties back to Egypt, away from Babylonia.
* ca 598 BC
Nebuchadezzar sent his army to retake Judah from its Egyptian allegiance.
* ca 598 BC
Jehoiakim unexpectedly died, and his son Jehoiachin became king.
* Jehoiachin had reigned 3 months in 598 BC when he surrendered Jerusalem to Babylonia, as the prophet Jeremiah had told his father must be done. Thousands went into Babylonian exile, including Ezekiel, Esther and her uncle Mordecai, with the King, Queen Mother, the eunuchs, princes of Judah and Jerusalem, craftsmen, smiths.
* 598 BC
Zedekiah became king of Judah.
* In 595 BC
Egypt's Necho II died and his son Psamtik II began to reign (595–589 BC)
* By 594 BC
Judah's king Zedekiah believed prophets other than Jeremiah, and hoped for other local countries to resist Babylonia with him
* In 589 BC
with only Tyre, Egypt, and perhaps Ammon supporting Judah, Babylonian troops returned to capture most of Judah except for Jerusalem
* In 589 BC
Egyptian Pharaoh Psamtik II died and his son Apries (aka Hophra) began to reign (589-570 BC)
* In 588 BC
Jerusalem was under siege. When Egypt's Pharaoh Hophra sent an army to aid Jerusalem, Babylonia left the siege to turn back the Egyptian forces.
* The remaining Jews believed God had delivered Jerusalem, until Babylonian forces returned from defeating Egyptian forces.
* In July of 587 BC
the Babylonian siege finally succeeded to breach the walls of Jerusalem and conquer the city.
* Pharaoh Hophra (aka Apries) stayed in power until overthrown by army general Amasis in 570 BC
JUDAH: Later prophets relay God's warnings, plans:
Chart of the Final KINGS of Judah
NOTE: The reasons the kings of Judah after Josiah were wicked are listed in 2Ch 36:12ff. God required the land of Judah (Israel) to be cleansed by the people going to Babylon for 70 years