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September 1   - Day 244
* Scriptures below
* Introduction to the book of Lamentations
* BOOKS on Lamentations, Amazon.com
* Study Index: Lamentations
* BIBLE DICTIONARY - as Jerusalem
* MAPS * OUTLINE BIBLE * TIMELINES
* Chart: Kings of Judah and Israel (also see below)
* Timeline: Some prophets of Judah and Israel

Commentary:
Jerusalem Falls - Egypt Calls 39-42


Scripture: (65vs)

EVENT: In 589 BC, Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon laid siege to Jerusalem and defiled the temple
NOTE: Jeremiah is believed to have written the poems for the book of Lamentations that same year.

  * Lamentations 4 (22vs)     - "How is the gold become dim! how is the most pure gold changed! The stones of the sanctuary are poured out at the head of every street.."

  * Lamentations 5 (22vs)     - "Remember, Yahweh, what has come on us: Look, and see our reproach.."

EVENT: In 589 BC, Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon appointed Gedaliah as governor of the land of Judah

  * Jeremiah 40 (16vs)   - "The word which came to Jeremiah from Yahweh, after that Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard had let him go from Ramah, when he had taken him being bound in chains among all the captives of Jerusalem and Judah, who were carried away captive to Babylon.."

  * 2 Kings 25:22-26 (5vs)   - Nebuchadnezzar appointed Gedaliah (son of Ahikam, son of Shaphan) to be governor of the land of Judah.


Local HISTORY:
ASSYRIA Second Empire of ASSYRIA with maps; 746-609 BC
* Assyria Timeline Chart
* The ancient city NINEVEH on the Tigris River was the capital
* Founding king Tiglath Pileser, 745727 BC, ruled during reigns of Menehem (Israel) and Uzziah (Judah)
* By 722 BC, the people of Israel had been moved and the land had become part of Assyria
* Conquered by Assyria in 717 BC, the Syrian city of Carchemish was on the west bank of the Euphrates River
* Waning Assyrian Power (D. Bratcher)
* In 609 BC, Assyria had weakened and fallen to Babylon
* About 604 BC, Carchemish was the scene of Egypt's defeat (King Necho II) by Babylonia (King Nebuchadnezzar II)

BABYLONIANEO BABYLONIAN Empire with maps; ca. 627-539 BC
* Nebuchadnezzar II's father, Nabopolassar, established the Chaldean era of the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 626 BC, rebelling against Assyria
* Nabopolassar was king when the Assyrian capital Ninevah was sacked (612 BC)
* Nebuchadnezzar had been the Chaldean king of the Babylonian Empire 19 years when Jerusalem fell in 586 BC
* In 586 BC, almost all the remaining Jews of Judah were taken from the Promised Land northeast into the captivity promised by their God.

EGYPT,
JUDAH,
BABYLON
* 610 BC Pharaoh Necho II began his reign (610-595 BC)
* 609 BC on Necho's way to meet the Babylonians at Carchemish in Syria, Judah's King Josiah tried to stop Egypt from the intended battle. Josiah was killed at Megiddo and buried at Jerusalem.
* From 609-605 BC Judah was under Egyptian control after the death of King Josiah. Pharaoh Necho established Josiah's second son Jehoiakim the puppet king of Judah.
* Egypt maintained an outpost in the northern Syria city of Carchemish
* In 605 BC Nebuchadezzar drove Egypt out of Carchemish and south toward Palestine (coastal Philistine territory). At this time Nebuchadezzar became sole king of Babylonia at the death of his father and co-reigner, Nabopolasser.
* 606/5 BC was Jehoiakim's 4th year as king and Nebuchadnezzar's 1st year solo reigning
* 604 BC Jehoiakim of Judah switched loyalties from Egypt to Babylonia as the latter moved into the coastal Philistine territory, northeast of Egypt and southwest of Judah.
* By 601 BC Having gone through Phlistine land, Nebuchadezzar fought Egypt, led by Pharaoh Necho, but Babylonia - unable to conquer Egypt - soon returned home.
* Seeing Egypt's apparent victory, Jehoiakim of Judah switched loyalties back to Egypt, away from Babylonia.
* ca 598 BC Nebuchadezzar sent his army to retake Judah from its Egyptian allegiance.
* ca 598 BCJehoiakim unexpectedly died, and his son Jehoiachin became king.
598 BC * Jehoiachin had reigned 3 months in 598 BC when he surrendered Jerusalem to Babylonia, as the prophet Jeremiah had told his father must be done. Thousands went into Babylonian exile, including Ezekiel, Esther and her uncle Mordecai, with the King, Queen Mother, the eunuchs, princes of Judah and Jerusalem, craftsmen, smiths.
* 598 BC Zedekiah became king of Judah.
* In 595 BC Egypt's Necho II died and his son Psamtik II began to reign (595589 BC)
* By 594 BC Judah's king Zedekiah believed prophets other than Jeremiah, and hoped for other local countries to resist Babylonia with him
* In 589 BC with only Tyre, Egypt, and perhaps Ammon supporting Judah, Babylonian troops returned to capture most of Judah except for Jerusalem
* In 589 BC Egyptian Pharaoh Psamtik II died and his son Apries (aka Hophra) began to reign (589-570 BC)
* In 588 BC Jerusalem was under siege. When Egypt's Pharaoh Hophra sent an army to aid Jerusalem, Babylonia left the siege to turn back the Egyptian forces.
* The remaining Jews believed God had delivered Jerusalem, until Babylonian forces returned from defeating Egyptian forces.
* In July of 587 BC the Babylonian siege finally succeeded to breach the walls of Jerusalem and conquer the city.
* Pharaoh Hophra (aka Apries) stayed in power until overthrown by army general Amasis in 570 BC

JUDAH: Later prophets relay God's warnings, plans:
* Jeremiah prophesied from the reign of Josiah past the destruction of Jerusalem
* Zephaniah prophesied during the reign of Josiah
* Habakkuk likely prophesied during the reign of Josiah

PROPHETS IN EXILE:
* Daniel born during Josiah; into exile from Judah to Babylon in Jehoiakim reign
* Ezekiel was probably exiled from Judah to Babylon with Jehoiachin

RESTORATION PROPHETS:
* Ezra followed Daniel and preceeded Nehemiah
* Nehemiah supplemented and completed Ezra's rebuilding history
* Malachi was probably contemporary with Nehemiah
* Haggai prophesied after Israel's return from the Babylonian captivity during 2nd temple
* Zechariah prophesied after Israel's return from the Babylonian captivity during 2nd temple

Chart of the Final KINGS of Judah
NOTE: The reasons the kings of Judah after Josiah were wicked are listed in 2Ch 36:12ff.
God required the land of Judah (Israel) to be cleansed by the people going to Babylon for 70 years
Josiah Jehoahaz Jehoiakim
Jehoiachin
Zedekiah
* Josiah born to Amon
(Josiah's son)
(Josiah's son)
(Jehoiakim's son)
(Josiah's son)
* age8- became King




* 14- son Jehoiakim born

* Jehoiakim born


* 16- son Jehoahaz born
* Jehoahaz born
* 2 years old


* 18- celebrated Passover
* 2 years old
* 4 years old


* 21- (13th yr of reign)
    Jeremiah, Habakkuk
    prophets
* 5 years old
* 7 years old


* 29- son Zedekiah born
* 13 years old
* 15 years old

* Zedekiah born
* 39 Josiah died

* 23- made king; 3 months * 25- made king; 11 yrs

* 10 years old
(buried in Judah)
(died in Egypt)
* 27- son Jehoiachin born
* Jehoiachin born
* 12 years old


* 28-* 1
* 13
In the fourth year of the reign of Jehoiakim (B.C. 606), Nebuchadnezzar (in his first year reigning Jer 25:1) carried Daniel with other youths of Jewish nobility and articles from the temple, off to Babylon. 2Kings 24:1-7 and 2 Chronicles 36:5-7


* 36- Jehoiakim died in Babylon
* 8- made king; 3 mo 10 da
* removed to Babylon
* 21- made king; 11 yrs


(Babylonia)
* 19- prison, Babylonia * 32- taken to Babylonia



* 45- released 2Ki 25:27 (Babylonia)

KINGS
of JUDAH around Jerusalem of ISRAEL (taken by Assyria) of neighbor countries
At Amon's assasination, his son Josiah began a 31yr reign
At Josiah's death, his younger son Jehoahaz (Shallum) began a 3 mo reign
Pharaoh Necho removed Jehoahaz (Shallum) to die in Egypt.
Egypt's Necho made Josiah's son Jehoiakim (Eliakim) king; 11 yr reign
    In Jehoiakim's 4th yr as king, Nebuchadnezzar began his reign of Babylon.
    Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon conquered Assyria as well as Egypt
Jehoiakim was exiled to Babylon; his 8yo son Jehoiachin (Jeconiah, Coniah) king 3 mos
Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon took 8yo Jehoiachin to jail him in Babylon; later released
Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon made Jehoiachin's uncle Zedekiah (Mattaniah) king, 11 yrs.

Zedekiah (Mattaniah) was the last king of Judah

Other Countries
DAMASCUS (Syria): Rezin king
SYRIA: Hazael followed by his son Ben-hadad
BABYLON
    Judah became part of Babylon's Empire under King Nebuchadnezzar

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