DATE: ca 539 BC - King Belshazzar lost the Babylonian Empire in one night when Darius the Mede and Cyrus the Great took the kingdom of Babylon
DATE: ca 539 BC -
Probably Cyaxares II was Darius the Mede, uncle of Cyrus the Great, referred to in the book of Daniel. Darius was 62 years old when he and nephew Cyrus took the kingdom of Babylon in 539 BC, and he died about two years later in 537/536 BC (9-14) DATE: ca 538 BC "Decree of Cyrus" by Cyrus the Great gave the Jews (Judahites) permission to return to the Judah (Yehud) province to rebuild the Temple at Jerusalem. (9-15) DATE: ca 537 BC - Darius the Mede died and Cyrus was sole king, per PresentTruth.com and PhiloLogos.org DATE: ca 537 BC 42,360 people returned to Judah and during the 2nd year the governor Zerubbabel and high priest Jeshua had organized the workers and laid the foundation of the Temple DATE: ca 537-520 BC adversaries to Israel frustrated and delayed the rebuilding of the Temple about 17 years DATE: ca 536 BC - revelations to Daniel were completed DATE: ca 530 BC - Cyrus diedDATE: ca 530-522 BC - Cyrus's son Cambyses II (also called Artaxerxes) ruled the Persian Empire, but spent much time in Egypt DATE: ca 522 BC - Cambyses II diedDATE: ca 522 BC - a usurper sometimes known as Smerdis reigned the Persian Empire 7 months DATE: ca 522-485 BC (ca 37 yrs) - Darius I the Great ruled Persian Empire after assasinating usurper Bardiya aka Smerdis DATE: ca 520 BC - in the 2nd year of Darius, God began speaking to Israel through prophets Haggai (9-16) and Zecharaiah (9-17)
DATE: ca 520 BC - 2nd year of Darius I the Great brought renewed construction work on the Second Temple (9-18)
DATE: ca 518 BC - 4th year of Darius I the Great with Messianic prophecies (9-19 and 9-20 )
DATE: ca 516/5 BC - construction of the Second Temple was completed during the 6th year of Darius I the Great (aka Darius Hystaspes, son of Hystaspes) DATE: ca 485 BC - in the 37th year of Darius I the Great, he diedDATE: ca 485-465 BC (ca 20 yrs) - Xerxes I the Great, son of Darius I, ruled Persian Empire and married Esther DATE: ca 482 BC - 3rd year of Xerxes I the Great, (aka Ahasuerus) - a public marital crisis DATE: ca 478 BC - 7th year of Xerxes I the Great, (aka Ahasuerus) - the king married Esther DATE: ca 473 BC - 12th year of Xerxes I the Great, (aka Ahasuerus) - Haman organized a Jewish holocaust throughout the Empire. DATE: ca 465-424 BC (ca 40 yrs) - Artaxerxes I Longimanus, son of Xerxes I, ruled Persian Empire DATE: ca 458/456 BC - in the 7th and 8th years of Artaxerxes Longimanus chapter 7 of the book of Ezra records his return to Jerusalem. DATE: ca 445-433 BC (ca 12 yrs) - the book of Nehemiah covered history from the 20th to 32nd years of Artaxerxes I Longimanus DATE: between 445-432? BC, the book of Malachi was likely written during the time of Nehemiah, the governor. Some think it was written later, ca 420 BC. DATE: ca 424 BC - Artaxerxes Longimanus died. The end of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia came less that 100 years later.
Links to Wikipedia: Ahasuerus was a title applied to 3 Persian rulers in scriptures
Second Empire of ASSYRIA with maps; 746-609 BC * Assyria Timeline Chart * The ancient city
NINEVEH on the Tigris River was the capital
* Founding king Tiglath Pileser, 745–727 BC, ruled during reigns of Menehem (Israel) and Uzziah (Judah)
* By 722 BC, the people of Israel had been moved and the land had become part of Assyria
* Conquered by Assyria in 717 BC, the Syrian city of Carchemish was on the west bank of the Euphrates River
* Waning Assyrian Power (D. Bratcher)
* In 609 BC, Assyria had weakened and fallen to Babylon
* About 604 BC, Carchemish was the scene of Egypt's defeat (King Necho II) by Babylonia (King Nebuchadnezzar II)
NEO BABYLONIAN Empire with maps; ca. 627-539 BC
* Nebuchadnezzar II's father, Nabopolassar, established the Chaldean era of the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 626 BC, rebelling against Assyria
* Nabopolassar was king when the Assyrian capital Ninevah was sacked (612 BC)
* Nebuchadnezzar had been the Chaldean king of the Babylonian Empire 19 years when Jerusalem fell in 586 BC
* In 586 BC, almost all the remaining Jews of Judah were taken from the Promised Land northeast into the captivity promised by their God.
Jehoiakim of Judah switched loyalties from Egypt to Babylonia as the latter moved into the coastal regions of Philistine territory, northeast of Egypt and southwest of Judah.
* By 601 BC
Nebuchadezzar was at war with Egypt led by Pharaoh Necho, but Babylonia - unable to conquer Egypt - soon returned home.
* Seeing Egypt's apparent victory, Jehoiakim of Judah switched loyalties back to Egypt, away from Babylonia.
* 598 BC
Nebuchadezzar sent his army to retake Judah from its Egyptian allegiance. Then Jehoiakim suddenly died, and his son Jehoiachin became king.
* Jehoiachin had reigned 3 months in 598 BC when he surrendered Jerusalem to Babylonia, as the prophet Jeremiah had told his father must be done. Thousands went into Babylonian exile, including Daniel and Esther.
* In 595 BC
Egypt's Necho II died and his son Psamtik II began to reign (595–589 BC)
* By 594 BC
Judah's king Zedekiah believed prophets other than Jeremiah and hoped for other local countries to resist Babylonia with him
* In 589 BC
with only Tyre, Egypt, and perhaps Ammon supporting Judah, Babylonian troops returned to capture most of Judah except for Jerusalem
* In 589 BC
Egyptian Pharaoh Psamtik II died and his son Apries (aka Hophra) began to reign (589-570 BC)
* In 588 BC
Jerusalem was under siege. When Egypt's Pharaoh Hophra sent an army to aid Jerusalem, Babylonia left the siege to turn back the Egyptian forces.
* The remaining Jews believed God had delivered Jerusalem, until Babylonian forces returned from defeating Egyptian forces.
* In July of 587 BC
the Babylonian siege finally succeeded to breach the walls of Jerusalem and conquer the city.
* Pharaoh Hophra (aka Apries) stayed in power until overthrown by army general Amasis in 570 BC
JUDAH: Later prophets relay God's warnings, plans:
Chart of the Final KINGS of Judah
NOTE: The reasons the kings of Judah after Josiah were wicked are listed in 2Ch 36:12ff. God required the land of Judah (Israel) to be cleansed by the people going to Babylon for 70 years