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October 1   - Day 274   - New Testament Day 2 of 99
* Gospel Study Indexes: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* Online Bible DICTIONARY Index
* BOOKS to buy about Gospel, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Amazon.com

Commentary:
Jesus' Background and Preparation
Matthew 1-4

Local History: (more at The Roman Empire and Messiah (Christ) in Israel)

DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, ordered a census of the entire empire; Luke 2:1.
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Quirinius, governor of Syria ordered a census in Judea (Luke 2:2)
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Jesus was born in Bethlehem
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod the Great, king of Judea, died.
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod "Archelaus" replaced his father Herod as king of Judea.

Scriptures: (116vs)
* Luke 2:1-52 (52vs),   3:23-38 (16vs)   * Matthew 1:1-25 (25vs),   2:1-23 (23vs)  

  ca 6-4 BC - Caesar Augustus ordered empire census enrollment:   Luke 2:1-3 (3 vs)
Now it happened in those days, that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus
that all the world should be enrolled.
This was the first enrollment made when Quirinius was governor of Syria.
All went to enroll themselves, everyone to his own city.


  Joseph's hometown was David's city, per his genealogy:   Matthew 1:1-17 (17vs)
The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.

Abraham became the father of Isaac.
Isaac became the father of Jacob.
Jacob became the father of Judah and his brothers.
Judah became the father of Perez and Zerah by Tamar.
Perez became the father of Hezron.
Hezron became the father of Ram.
Ram became the father of Amminadab.
Amminadab became the father of Nahshon.
Nahshon became the father of Salmon.
Salmon became the father of Boaz by Rahab.
Boaz became the father of Obed by Ruth.
Obed became the father of Jesse.
Jesse became the father of King David.

David became the father of Solomon by her who had been the wife of Uriah.
Solomon became the father of Rehoboam.
Rehoboam became the father of Abijah.
Abijah became the father of Asa.
Asa became the father of Jehoshaphat.
Jehoshaphat became the father of Joram.
Joram became the father of Uzziah.
Uzziah became the father of Jotham.
Jotham became the father of Ahaz.
Ahaz became the father of Hezekiah.
Hezekiah became the father of Manasseh.
Manasseh became the father of Amon.
Amon became the father of Josiah.
Josiah became the father of Jechoniah and his brothers, at the time of the exile to Babylon.

After the exile to Babylon,
Jechoniah became the father of Shealtiel.
Shealtiel became the father of Zerubbabel.
Zerubbabel became the father of Abiud.
Abiud became the father of Eliakim.
Eliakim became the father of Azor.
Azor became the father of Sadoc.
Sadoc became the father of Achim.
Achim became the father of Eliud.
Eliud became the father of Eleazar.
Eleazar became the father of Matthan.
Matthan became the father of Jacob.
Jacob became the father of Joseph,
the husband of Mary,
from whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ.

So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations;
from David to the exile to Babylon fourteen generations;
and from the carrying away to Babylon to the Christ, fourteen generations.


  Jesus' Jewish genealogy:   Luke 3:23-38 (16vs)
Jesus himself, when he began to teach, was about thirty years old, being
the son (as was supposed) of Joseph,
the son of Heli,
the son of Matthat,
the son of Levi,
the son of Melchi,
the son of Jannai,
the son of Joseph,
the son of Mattathias,
the son of Amos,
the son of Nahum,
the son of Esli,
the son of Naggai,
the son of Maath,

the son of Mattathias,
the son of Semein,
the son of Joseph,
the son of Judah,
the son of Joanan,
the son of Rhesa,
the son of Zerubbabel, [* Matt 1:12]
the son of Shealtiel, [* Matt 1:12]
the son of Neri,
the son of Melchi,
the son of Addi,
the son of Cosam,
the son of Elmodam,
the son of Er,

the son of Jose,
the son of Eliezer,
the son of Jorim,
the son of Matthat,
the son of Levi,
the son of Simeon,
the son of Judah,
the son of Joseph,
the son of Jonan,
the son of Eliakim,
the son of Melea,
the son of Menan,
the son of Mattatha,
the son of Nathan,

the son of David,
the son of Jesse,
the son of Obed,
the son of Boaz,
the son of Salmon,
the son of Nahshon,
the son of Amminadab,
the son of Aram,
the son of Hezron,
the son of Perez,
the son of Judah,
the son of Jacob,
the son of Isaac,
the son of Abraham,

the son of Terah,
the son of Nahor,
the son of Serug,
the son of Reu,
the son of Peleg,
the son of Eber,
the son of Shelah,
the son of Cainan,
the son of Arphaxad,
the son of Shem,

the son of Noah,
the son of Lamech,
the son of Methuselah,
the son of Enoch,
the son of Jared,
the son of Mahalaleel,
the son of Cainan,
the son of Enos,
the son of Seth,
the son of Adam,

the son of God.

  Why Joseph took Mary with him to enroll:   Matthew 1:18-25 (8 vs)

Now the birth of Jesus Christ was like this; for after his mother, Mary, was engaged to Joseph, before they came together, she was found pregnant by the Holy Spirit.

Joseph, her husband, being a righteous man, and not willing to make her a public example, intended to put her away secretly.

But when he thought about these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying,

"Joseph, son of David, donít be afraid to take to yourself Mary, your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit.

She shall bring forth a son. You shall call his name Jesus, for it is he who shall save his people from their sins."

Now all this has happened, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying,

"Behold, the virgin shall be with child,
and shall bring forth a son.
They shall call his name Immanuel;"
which is, being interpreted, "God with us." [* Isa 7:14]

Joseph arose from his sleep, and did as the angel of the Lord commanded him,
and took his wife to himself;
and didnít know her sexually until she had brought forth her firstborn son.

He named him Jesus.


  Joseph left Nazareth to enroll in Bethlehem:   Luke 2:4-5 (2 vs)

Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth,
into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem,
because he was of the house and family of David;
to enroll himself with Mary, who was pledged to be married to him as wife,
being pregnant.


  In Bethlehem, Joseph's betrothed had her baby, Jesus:   Luke 2:6-7 (2 vs)

It happened, while they were there, that the day had come that she should give birth.

She brought forth her firstborn son, and she wrapped him in bands of cloth,
and laid him in a feeding trough, because there was no room for them in the inn.


  Shepherds and angels came:   Luke 2:8-15 (8 vs)

There were shepherds in the same country staying in the field, and keeping watch by night over their flock.

Behold, an angel of the Lord stood by them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were terrified.

The angel said to them,

"Donít be afraid, for behold, I bring you good news of great joy which will be to all the people.

For there is born to you, this day, in the city of David, a Savior, who is Christ the Lord.

This is the sign to you: you will find a baby wrapped in strips of cloth, lying in a feeding trough."

Suddenly, there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly army praising God, and saying,
"Glory to God in the highest, on earth peace, good will toward men."

It happened, when the angels went away from them into the sky, that the shepherds said one to another,

"Letís go to Bethlehem, now, and see this thing that has happened, which the Lord has made known to us."
  Shepherds found Jesus:   Luke 2:16-20 (5 vs)

They came with haste, and found both Mary and Joseph, and the baby was lying in the feeding trough.

When they saw it, they publicized widely the saying which was spoken to them about this child.

All who heard it wondered at the things which were spoken to them by the shepherds.

But Mary kept all these sayings, pondering them in her heart.

The shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, just as it was told them.


  Circumcised, purified, and presented to the Lord:   Luke 2:21-38 (18vs)

When eight days were fulfilled for the circumcision of the child,
his name was called Jesus, which was given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb.

When the days of their purification according to the law of Moses were fulfilled,
they brought him up to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord
(as it is written in the law of the Lord,

"Every male who opens the womb shall be called holy to the Lord"), [* Lev 12, * Exo 13]
and to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord,
"A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons." [* Lev 1:14]

Behold, there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon.
This man was righteous and devout, looking for the consolation of Israel,
and the Holy Spirit was on him.
It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he should not see death
before he had seen the Lordís Christ.
He came in the Spirit into the temple.
When the parents brought in the child, Jesus,
that they might do concerning him according to the custom of the law,
then he received him into his arms, and blessed God, and said,

"Now you are releasing your servant, Master,
according to your word, in peace;
for my eyes have seen your salvation,
which you have prepared before the face of all peoples;
a light for revelation to the nations,
and the glory of your people Israel."

Joseph and his mother were marveling at the things which were spoken concerning him, and Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary, his mother,

"Behold, this child is set for the falling and the rising of many in Israel, and for a sign which is spoken against.

Yes, a sword will pierce through your own soul, that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed."

There was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher (she was of a great age, having lived with a husband seven years from her virginity, and she had been a widow for about eighty-four years), who didnít depart from the temple, worshipping with fastings and petitions night and day.

Coming up at that very hour, she gave thanks to the Lord, and spoke of him to all those who were looking for redemption in Jerusalem.


  Foreign wise men, following star, asked King Herod for directions:   Matthew 2:1-12 (12vs)
    [Map of Nazareth, Bethlehem, Jerusalem | Map with more cities]

Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of King Herod,
behold, wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying,

"Where is he who is born King of the Jews?
For we saw his star in the east, and have come to worship him."

When King Herod heard it, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him.

Gathering together all the chief priests and scribes of the people,
he asked them where the Christ would be born.
They said to him,

"In Bethlehem of Judea,
for this is written through the prophet,
'You Bethlehem, land of Judah, are in no way least among the princes of Judah:
for out of you shall come forth a governor, who shall shepherd my people, Israel.'" [* Mic 5:2 * Isa 40:11]

Then Herod secretly called the wise men, and learned from them exactly what time the star appeared.

He sent them to Bethlehem, and said,

"Go and search diligently for the young child. When you have found him, bring me word, so that I also may come and worship him."

They, having heard the king, went their way; and behold, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, until it came and stood over where the young child was.

When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceedingly great joy.

They came into the house and saw the young child with Mary, his mother, and they fell down and worshiped him. Opening their treasures, they offered to him gifts: gold, frankincense, and myrrh.

Being warned in a dream that they shouldnít return to Herod, they went back to their own country another way.


  An angel warned Joseph to go to Egypt:   Matthew 2:13-15 (3 vs)
Now when they had departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, saying,
"Arise and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and stay there until I tell you, for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him."

He arose and took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt, and was there until the death of Herod; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying,

"Out of Egypt I called my son." [* Hos 11:1]

  When the men didn't return, Herod had all boys 2 and under killed:   Matthew 2:16-18 (3 vs)
Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked by the wise men, was exceedingly angry, and sent out, and killed all the male children who were in Bethlehem and in all the surrounding countryside, from two years old and under, according to the exact time which he had learned from the wise men.

Then that which was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled, saying,

"A voice was heard in Ramah,
lamentation, weeping and great mourning,
Rachel weeping for her children;
she wouldnít be comforted,
because they are no more." [* Jer 31:15]

  ca 4 BC - Revealed to Joseph what to do when Herod died:   Matthew 2:19-23 (5 vs)
But when Herod was dead, behold,
an angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, saying,
"Arise and take the young child and his mother,
and go into the land of Israel,
for those who sought the young childís life are dead."

He arose and took the young child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel.

But when he heard that Archelaus was reigning over Judea in the place of his father, Herod, he was afraid to go there. Being warned in a dream, he withdrew into the region of Galilee, and came and lived in a city called Nazareth; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophets:

"He will be called a Nazarene." *

  Returned to Nazareth in Galilee where Jesus grew up:   Luke 2:39-40 (2 vs)
When they had accomplished all things that were according to the law of the Lord,
they returned into Galilee,
to their own city, Nazareth.

The child was growing, and was becoming strong in spirit,
being filled with wisdom, and the grace of God was upon him.


  Jesus in Jerusalem for Passover, aged 12:   Luke 2:41-52 (12vs)

His parents went every year to Jerusalem at the feast of the Passover.

When he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem according to the custom of the feast,
and when they had fulfilled the days, as they were returning,
the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem.
Joseph and his mother didnít know it, but supposing him to be in the company,
they went a dayís journey, and they looked for him
among their relatives and acquaintances.
When they didnít find him, they returned to Jerusalem, looking for him.

It happened after three days they found him in the temple,
sitting in the midst of the teachers,
both listening to them, and asking them questions.
All who heard him were amazed at his understanding and his answers.

When they saw him, they were astonished, and his mother said to him,

"Son, why have you treated us this way?
Behold, your father and I were anxiously looking for you."

He said to them,

"Why were you looking for me?
Didnít you know that I must be in my Fatherís house?"

They didnít understand the saying which he spoke to them.
And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth.
He was subject to them, and his mother kept all these sayings in her heart.

And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men.


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Local HISTORY charts:

The Roman Empire and Messiah (Christ) in Israel - links to Wikipedia for information on caesars and kings of the Roman Empire effecting Israel
DATE: ca 51 BC - Quirinius, became governor of Syria
DATE: 44 BC - Julius Caesar was murdered; last Caesar of the Roman Republic. Civil war followed.

Harmony reading: 1 (Sept 30)

DATE: ca 37 (or 40) BC - Herod the Great began his reign in Judea, killing off the Hasmonean Dynasty and the Maccabees of the Kingdom of Israel (ca 140-37 BC). Map of the Kingdom of Herod.
DATE: ca 30 BC - Cleopatra of Egypt died
DATE: ca 30-27 BC - Caesar Augustus began ruling as first Emperor of the Roman Empire

Harmony reading: 2 (Oct 1)

DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, ordered a census of the entire empire; Luke 2:1
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Quirinius, governor of Syria ordered a census in Judea (Luke 2:2)
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Jesus was born in Bethlehem
DATE: ca   4 BC - in Judea Herod the Great died. He had rebuilt the 2nd Temple in Jerusalem, calling it Herod's Temple.
DATE: ca   4 BC - Herod Archelaus replaced his father Herod as king of Judea until 6 AD.
DATE: ca 14 AD - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, died.
DATE: ca 21 AD - Quirinius, governor of Syria, died
More tomorrow

Persia and Judah - Persia (Persian Empire) aka Achaemenid Empire c 550-330 BC; with maps; included what had been Babylon, 539 BC

more before:
DATE: ca 430-420 BC - Some think late in the reign of Artaxerxes I Longimanus or early in the reign of Darius II (ca 423-404 BC), Malachi wrote warnings and promises from the LORD.

Persian Empire kings - links to Wikipedia for information on kings of the Persian Empire from 559-330 BC

Empires governing the Israel in the Middle East - from 746 BC to current; lists of empires

Assyria - Second Empire of ASSYRIA with maps; 746-609 BC

Babylonia - NEO BABYLONIAN Empire with maps; ca. 627-539 BC

Egypt & Judah - Egypt neighbored Israel to the southwest

Final prophets and kings of Judah

* BIBLE DICTIONARY - as Gospel
* MAPS * OUTLINE BIBLE * TIMELINES
* Chart: Kings of Judah and Israel
* Charts: Israel history
* Timeline: Some prophets of Judah and Israel

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