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October 2   - Day 275 - New Testament Day 3 of 99
* Gospel Study Indexes: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* Online Bible DICTIONARY Index
* BOOKS to buy about Gospel, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Amazon.com

Commentary:
In the Beginning Was the Word
John 1-3

Local History: (The Roman Empire and Israel)

Scriptures: (93vs)
* Mark 1:1-13 (13vs)   * Luke 3:1-18; 3:21-22; 4:1-13 (33vs)   * Matthew 3:1-17; 4:1-11 (28vs)   * John 1:10-28 (19vs)  

  Christ the promised Messiah described by revelation:   John 1:10-14, 16-18 (8vs)
He was in the world, and the world was made through him,
and the world didn’t recognize him.
He came to his own,
and those who were his own didn’t receive him.

But as many as received him,
to them he gave the right to become God’s children,
to those who believe in his name: who were born not of blood,
nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man,
but of God.

The Word became flesh, and lived among us.
We saw his glory,
such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father,
full of grace and truth.
From his fullness we all received grace upon grace.

For the law was given through Moses.
Grace and truth were realized through Jesus Christ.
No one has seen God at any time.
The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father,
he has declared him.


  John the Baptist's ministry in the wilderness around the Jordan River:   Luke 3:1-18 (18vs)
DATE: ca 29 AD as John the Baptist began preaching around the Jordan River:
It was the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar , who was emperor of the Roman Empire between 14-37 AD
Pontius Pilate was governor of the Roman province Judea (Iudaea) between 26-36 AD
Herod Antipas was tetrarch of the Roman province Galilee between 4 BC-39 AD
Philip was tetrarch of the Roman provinces Ituraea and Trachonitis between 4 BC-34 AD
Lysanias was tetrarch of the Roman province Abilene, dates unverified
Annas first high priest in Jerusalem when Iudaea became a Roman province in 6 AD; deposed in 15 AD
Caiaphas a high priest in Jerusalem from 18-36 AD; son-in-law of Annas who sometimes acted as high priest
Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar,
Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea,
and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee,
and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis,
and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene,
in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas,
the word of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness.

He came into all the region around the Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for remission of sins.

As it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet,

"The voice of one crying in the wilderness,
'Make ready the way of the Lord. Make his paths straight.

Every valley will be filled.
Every mountain and hill will be brought low.
The crooked will become straight,
and the rough ways smooth.

All flesh will see God’s salvation.'" [* Isa 40:3]

He said therefore to the multitudes who went out to be baptized by him,
"You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance, and don’t begin to say among yourselves,

'We have Abraham for our father;'
for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones!

Even now the axe also lies at the root of the trees.
Every tree therefore that doesn’t bring forth good fruit
is cut down, and thrown into the fire."

The multitudes asked him,
"What then must we do?"
He answered them,
" He who has two coats, let him give to him who has none.
He who has food, let him do likewise."
Tax collectors also came to be baptized, and they said to him,
"Teacher, what must we do?"
He said to them,
"Collect no more than that which is appointed to you."
Soldiers also asked him, saying,
"What about us? What must we do?"
He said to them,
"Extort from no one by violence, neither accuse anyone wrongfully.
Be content with your wages."
As the people were in expectation,
and all men reasoned in their hearts concerning John,
whether perhaps he was the Christ,
John answered them all,
"I indeed baptize you with water, but he comes who is mightier than I,
the latchet of whose sandals I am not worthy to loosen.
He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit and fire,
whose fan is in his hand,
and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor,
and will gather the wheat into his barn;
but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire."
Then with many other exhortations he preached good news to the people,

  John the Baptist's ministry in the wilderness:   Mark 1:1-8 (8vs)
The beginning of the Good News of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.

As it is written in the prophets,

"Behold, I send my messenger before your face, who will prepare your way before you. [* Mal 3:1]
The voice of one crying in the wilderness,
‘Make ready the way of the Lord!
Make his paths straight!’" [* Isa 40:3]
John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins.

All the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him.
They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins.

John was clothed with camel’s hair and a leather belt around his waist.
He ate locusts and wild honey.

He preached, saying,

"After me comes he who is mightier than I,
the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and loosen.
I baptized you in water,
but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit."


  John the Baptist's ministry in the wilderness of Judea:   Matthew 3:1-12 (12vs)
In those days, John the Baptizer came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying,
"Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!"
For this is he who was spoken of by Isaiah the prophet, saying,
“The voice of one crying in the wilderness,
make ready the way of the Lord.
Make his paths straight.” [* Isa 40:3]

Now John himself wore clothing made of camel’s hair, with a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey.

Then people from Jerusalem, all of Judea, and all the region around the Jordan went out to him.

They were baptized by him in the Jordan, confessing their sins.

But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming for his baptism, he said to them,

“You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

Therefore bring forth fruit worthy of repentance!
Don’t think to yourselves,

'We have Abraham for our father,'
for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones.

“Even now the axe lies at the root of the trees.
Therefore, every tree that doesn’t bring forth good fruit
is cut down, and cast into the fire.

I indeed baptize you in water for repentance,
but he who comes after me is mightier than I,
whose shoes I am not worthy to carry.
He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. [* Mt 3:11, * Mk 3:11, * Lk 3:16, * Jo 1:33]

His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor.
He will gather his wheat into the barn,
but the chaff he will burn up with unquenchable fire.”


  John baptized Jesus and heard a voice:   Matthew 3:13-17 (5vs)
Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to John, to be baptized by him.

But John would have hindered him, saying,

"I need to be baptized by you, and you come to me?"
But Jesus, answering, said to him,
"Allow it now, for this is the fitting way for us to fulfill all righteousness."
Then he allowed him.

Jesus, when he was baptized, went up directly from the water:
and behold, the heavens were opened to him.
He saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming on him.

Behold, a voice out of the heavens said,

"This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased."

  John baptized Jesus and heard a voice:   Mark 1:9-11 (3 vs)
It happened in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee,
and was baptized by John in the Jordan.
Immediately coming up from the water, he saw the heavens parting,
and the Spirit descending on him like a dove.

A voice came out of the sky,

"You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."

  John baptized Jesus and heard a voice:   Luke 3:21-22 (2vs)
Now it happened, when all the people were baptized, Jesus also had been baptized, and was praying.

The sky was opened, and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying

"You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased."

Jesus' 40 days in the wilderness
  The Holy Spirit led Jesus off in the wilderness to be tempted:   Matthew 4:1-11 (11vs)
Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil.

When he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was hungry afterward.

The tempter came and said to him,

"If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread."

But he answered,

“It is written,
'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.'" [* Deut 8:3]
Then the devil took him into the holy city.
He set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to him,
"If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written,
'He will put his angels in charge of you.'
and,
'On their hands they will bear you up,
so that you don’t dash your foot against a stone.'" [* Psa 91:12]
Jesus said to him,
"Again, it is written,
'You shall not test the Lord, your God.'" [* Deu 6:16]

Again, the devil took him to an exceedingly high mountain,
and showed him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory.

He said to him,

"I will give you all of these things, if you will fall down and worship me."

Then Jesus said to him,

“Get behind me, Satan! For it is written,
'You shall worship the Lord your God, and you shall serve him only.'" [* Zech 3:2]
Then the devil left him, and behold, angels came and served him.
  The Holy Spirit led Jesus off in the wilderness to be tempted:     Mark 1:12-13 (2vs)
Immediately the Spirit drove him out into the wilderness.

He was there in the wilderness forty days tempted by Satan. He was with the wild animals; and the angels were serving him.


  The Holy Spirit led Jesus off in the wilderness to be tempted:   Luke 4:1-13 (13vs)
Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness for forty days, being tempted by the devil. He ate nothing in those days.

Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry.

The devil said to him,

"If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread."
Jesus answered him, saying,
"It is written,
'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.'" [* Deut 8:3]
The devil, leading him up on a high mountain,
showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time.

The devil said to him,

"I will give you all this authority, and their glory,
for it has been delivered to me;
and I give it to whomever I want.
If you therefore will worship before me, it will all be yours."
Jesus answered him,
"Get behind me Satan! For it is written,
'You shall worship the Lord your God, and you shall serve him only.'" [* Zech 3:2]
He led him to Jerusalem, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to him,
"If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down from here, for it is written,
'He will put his angels in charge of you, to guard you;"
and,
'On their hands they will bear you up,
lest perhaps you dash your foot against a stone.'" [* Psa 91:12]
Jesus answering, said to him,
"It has been said,
'You shall not tempt the Lord your God.'" [* Deu 6:16]
When the devil had completed every temptation,
he departed from him until another time.
After 40 days alone in the wilderness, it seems that Jesus returned to the Jordan area where John was still baptizing and speaking, with his disciples. John 1:15 indicates that John had already baptized Jesus some time before.
  John the Baptist's testimony at Bethany:   John 1:15 (1vs)
John testified about him. He cried out, saying,
"This was he of whom I said,
'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.'"
  John the Baptist explains his mission to priests & Levites:   John 1:19-28 (10vs)
This is John’s testimony, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him,
"Who are you?"
He declared, and didn’t deny, but he declared,
"I am not the Christ."
They asked him,
"What then? Are you Elijah?"
He said,
"I am not."
"Are you the prophet?" [* Deut 18:15]

He answered,

"No."
They said therefore to him,
"Who are you? Give us an answer to take back to those who sent us. What do you say about yourself?"
He said,
"I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness,
'Make straight the way of the Lord,' [* Isa 45:2]
as Isaiah the prophet said."
The ones who had been sent were from the Pharisees. They asked him,
"Why then do you baptize, if you are not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the prophet?"
John answered them,
"I baptize in water, but among you stands one whom you don’t know.

He is the one who comes after me, who is preferred before me, whose sandal strap I’m not worthy to loosen."

These things were done in Bethany beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing.


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Local HISTORY charts: Roman Empire and the Messiah in Israel
DATE: ca 51 BC - Quirinius, became governor of Syria
DATE: 44 BC - Julius Caesar was murdered; last Caesar of the Roman Republic. Civil war followed.

Harmony reading: 1 (Sept 30)

DATE: ca 37 (or 40) BC - Herod the Great began his reign in Judea, killing off the Hasmonean Dynasty and the Maccabees of the Kingdom of Israel (ca 140-37 BC). Map of the Kingdom of Herod.
DATE: ca 30 BC - Cleopatra of Egypt died
DATE: ca 30-27 BC - Caesar Augustus began ruling as first Emperor of the Roman Empire

Harmony reading: 2 (Oct 1)

DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, ordered a census of the entire empire; Luke 2:1.
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Quirinius, governor of Syria ordered a census in Judea (Luke 2:2)
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Jesus was born in Bethlehem
DATE: ca   4 BC - in Judea Herod the Great died. He had rebuilt the 2nd Temple in Jerusalem, calling it Herod's Temple.
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod "Archelaus" replaced his father Herod as king of Judea until banished in 6 AD. (See Iudaea Province). (Matt 2:13-23)
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod Antipas replaced his father Herod as the tetrarch of Roman province of Galilee and Perea
DATE: ca 4 BC - Philip the Tetrarch replaced his father Herod as Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis 4 BC – 34 AD
DATE: ca 6 BC - Herod "Archelaus" was exiled to Gaul and Augustus made Samaria, Judea, and Idumea a Roman province Iudaea.
DATE: ca 6 AD - Annas High Priest officially from 6-15 AD, but who lived until assasinated in 66 AD
DATE: ca 14 AD - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, died.

Harmony reading: 3 (Oct 2)

DATE: ca 14 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire, began his reign
DATE: ca 18 AD - Caiaphas High Priest from 18-36 AD (John 18:13 - son-in-law of Annas)
DATE: ca 21 AD - Quirinius, governor of Syria died
DATE: ca 26 AD - Pontius Pilate became the fifth Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire is mentioned in his 15th year (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 29 AD - Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - John the Baptist began his ministry (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Jesus began his ministry around the age of 30, soon after John

Harmony reading: later (Oct ?)

DATE: ca ? AD - around the age of 33, Jesus was crucified after being tried by Pontius Pilate and High Priest Annas
DATE: ca 34 AD - Philip the Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis died
DATE: ca 36 AD - Pontius Pilate was exiled to Gaul, perhaps by the cruel and insane Caligula who ruled Rome from 37–41 AD
DATE: ca 37 AD - Tiberius, Emperor of the Roman Empire, died and was followed by Caligula (AD 37–41) who claimed divinity
DATE: ca 39 AD - Tetrarch Herod Antipas was exiled from Galilee and Perea by his nephew Agrippa I who took over Galilee and Perea

Next harmony chart

Persia and Judah - Persia (Persian Empire) aka Achaemenid Empire c 550-330 BC; with maps; included what had been Babylon, 539 BC

more before:
DATE: ca 430-420 BC - Some think late in the reign of Artaxerxes I Longimanus or early in the reign of Darius II (ca 423-404 BC), Malachi wrote warnings and promises from the LORD.

Persian Empire kings - links to Wikipedia for information on kings of the Persian Empire from 559-330 BC

Empires governing the Israel in the Middle East - from 746 BC to current; lists of empires

Assyria - Second Empire of ASSYRIA with maps; 746-609 BC

Babylonia - NEO BABYLONIAN Empire with maps; ca. 627-539 BC

Egypt & Judah - Egypt neighbored Israel to the southwest

Final prophets and kings of Judah

* Study Indexes: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* BIBLE DICTIONARY - as Gospel
* MAPS * OUTLINE BIBLE * TIMELINES
* Chart: Kings of Judah and Israel
* Charts: Israel history
* Timeline: Some prophets of Judah and Israel

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