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October 4   - Day 277 New Testament Day 5 of 99
* Gospel Study Indexes: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
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* BOOKS to buy about Gospel, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Amazon.com
* Map of Galilee
Commentary:
Sermon on the Mount
Matthew 5-7

Local History: (The Roman Empire and Israel)

Scriptures: (82vs)
* Matthew 5:1-48 (48vs),   6:1-34 (34vs)  


  What did Jesus teach?   Matthew 5:1-12 (12vs)

The Sermon on the Mount
Seeing the multitudes, he went up onto the mountain.
When he had sat down, his disciples came to him.
He opened his mouth and taught them, saying,

"Blessed are the poor in spirit,
for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. [* Isa 57:15 * Isa 66:2]

Blessed are those who mourn,
for they shall be comforted. [* Isa 61:2 * Isa 66:10 * Isa 66:13]

Blessed are the gentle,
for they shall inherit the earth. [* Psa 37:11]

Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness,
for they shall be filled.

Blessed are the merciful,
for they shall obtain mercy.

Blessed are the pure in heart,
for they shall see God.

Blessed are the peacemakers,
for they shall be called children of God.

Blessed are those who have been persecuted for righteousnessí sake,
for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven.

Blessed are you when people reproach you, persecute you,
and say all kinds of evil against you falsely, for my sake.

Rejoice, and be exceedingly glad, for great is your reward in heaven.
For that is how they persecuted the prophets who were before you."


  Picture this - salt, light   Matthew 5:13-16 (4vs)

You are the salt of the earth,
but if the salt has lost its flavor,
with what will it be salted?
It is then good for nothing,
but to be cast out and trodden under the feet of men.

You are the light of the world. A city located on a hill canít be hidden.
Neither do you light a lamp, and put it under a measuring basket,
but on a stand; and it shines to all who are in the house.
Even so, let your light shine before men;
that they may see your good works,
and glorify your Father who is in heaven.


  The Law, prophets, Kingdom of Heaven   Matthew 5:17-22 (6 vs)

Donít think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets.
I didnít come to destroy, but to fulfill.

For most certainly, I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away,
not even one smallest letter or one tiny pen stroke shall in any way pass away from the law,
until all things are accomplished.

Whoever, therefore, shall break one of these least commandments,
and teach others to do so,
shall be called least in the Kingdom of Heaven;
but whoever shall do and teach them shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven.

For I tell you that unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees,
there is no way you will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven.

You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones,

'You shall not murder;' [* Ex 20:13 * Deu 5:17]
and
'Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.' [* Num 35:9 ff]
But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother
without a cause
shall be in danger of the judgment;
and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council;
and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna.

  Conflicts with brothers and adversaries:   Matthew 5:23-26 (4 vs)

If therefore you are offering your gift at the altar,
and there remember that your brother has anything against you,
leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way.
First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift.

Agree with your adversary quickly, while you are with him in the way;
lest perhaps the prosecutor deliver you to the judge,
and the judge deliver you to the officer,
and you be cast into prison.
Most certainly I tell you,
you shall by no means get out of there, until you have paid the last penny.


  The Law and what Jesus reveals on adultry & divorce:   Matthew 5:27-32 (6 vs)

You have heard that it was said,
'You shall not commit adultery;' [* Ex 20:14]
but I tell you that everyone who gazes at a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart.

If your right eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out and throw it away from you. For it is more profitable for you that one of your members should perish, than for your whole body to be cast into Gehenna.

If your right hand causes you to stumble, cut it off, and throw it away from you. For it is more profitable for you that one of your members should perish, than for your whole body to be cast into Gehenna.

It was also said,

'Whoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorce,' [* Deut 24:1]
but I tell you that whoever puts away his wife,
except for the cause of sexual immorality,
makes her an adulteress;
and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery.

  The Law on sworn vows; Jesus on swearing:   Matthew 5:33-37 (5 vs)

Again you have heard that it was said to them of old time,
'You shall not make false vows, but shall perform to the Lord your vows,' [* Pro 20:25]
but I tell you, donít swear at all:
neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God;
nor by the earth, for it is the footstool of his feet;
nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King.

Neither shall you swear by your head,
for you canít make one hair white or black.

But let your 'Yes' be 'Yes' and your 'No' be 'No.'
Whatever is more than these is of the evil one.


  The Law on retaliation; Jesus on no victimization:   Matthew 5:38-42 (5 vs)

You have heard that it was said,
'An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.' [* Ex 21:24, * Lev 24:20, * Deut 19:21]
But I tell you, donít resist him who is evil;
but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also.

If anyone sues you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also.

Whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two.

Give to him who asks you, and donít turn away him who desires to borrow from you.


  The Law commands love; Jesus reveals perfection:   Matthew 5:43-48 (6 vs)

You have heard that it was said,
'You shall love your neighbor, [* Lev 19:18]
and hate your enemy.' [* note]

But I tell you, love your enemies,
bless those who curse you,
do good to those who hate you,
and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you,
that you may be children of your Father who is in heaven.

For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good,
and sends rain on the just and the unjust.

For if you love those who love you,
what reward do you have?
Donít even the tax collectors do the same?

If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others?
Donít even the tax collectors do the same?

Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect.


  Mercy and rewards:   Matthew 6:1-4 (4 vs)

Be careful that you donít do your charitable giving before men, to be seen by them,
or else you have no reward from your Father who is in heaven.

Therefore when you do merciful deeds, donít sound a trumpet before yourself, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may get glory from men.

Most certainly I tell you, they have received their reward.

But when you do merciful deeds, donít let your left hand know what your right hand does,
so that your merciful deeds may be in secret, then your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly.


  Prayer:   Matthew 6:5-13 (9 vs)

When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men.

Most certainly, I tell you, they have received their reward.

But you, when you pray, enter into your inner chamber, and having shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly.

In praying, donít use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking.
Therefore donít be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him.

Pray like this:

'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy.
Let your Kingdom come.
Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth.
Give us today our daily bread.
Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors.
Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one.
For yours is the Kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.'

  Jesus revealed God's heavenly principle:   Matthew 6:14-23 (10vs)
For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you.

But if you donít forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses.

Moreover when you fast, donít be like the hypocrites, with sad faces. For they disfigure their faces, that they may be seen by men to be fasting. Most certainly I tell you, they have received their reward.

But you, when you fast, anoint your head, and wash your face;
so that you are not seen by men to be fasting, but by your Father who is in secret, and your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you.

Donít lay up treasures for yourselves on the earth, where moth and rust consume, and where thieves break through and steal;
but lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust consume, and where thieves donít break through and steal;
for where your treasure is, there your heart will be also.

The lamp of the body is the eye. If therefore your eye is sound, your whole body will be full of light.

But if your eye is evil, your whole body will be full of darkness.

If therefore the light that is in you is darkness,
how great is the darkness!


  Jesus revealed how to serve God:   Matthew 6:24-34 (11vs)

No one can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other; or else he will be devoted to one and despise the other.

You canít serve both God and Mammon.

Therefore, I tell you, donít be anxious for your life:

what you will eat,
or what you will drink;
nor yet for your body, what you will wear.
Isnít life more than food, and the body more than clothing?

See the birds of the sky, that they donít sow, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns. Your heavenly Father feeds them. Arenít you of much more value than they?

Which of you, by being anxious, can add one moment to his lifespan?

Why are you anxious about clothing? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow. They donít toil, neither do they spin,
yet I tell you that even Solomon in all his glory was not dressed like one of these.

But if God so clothes the grass of the field, which today exists, and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, wonít he much more clothe you, you of little faith?

Therefore donít be anxious, saying,

'What will we eat?',
'What will we drink?í or,
'With what will we be clothed?'

For the Gentiles seek after all these things;
for your heavenly Father knows that you need all these things.

But seek first Godís kingdom, and his righteousness;
and all these things will be given to you as well.

Therefore donít be anxious for tomorrow, for tomorrow will be anxious for itself.
Each dayís own
evil is sufficient.


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Map of Palestine Israel during Jesus' life


Local HISTORY charts: Roman Empire and the Messiah in Israel
DATE: ca 51 BC - Quirinius, became governor of Syria
DATE: 44 BC - Julius Caesar was murdered; last Caesar of the Roman Republic. Civil war followed.

Harmony reading: 1 (Sept 30)

DATE: ca 37 (or 40) BC - Herod the Great began his reign in Judea, killing off the Hasmonean Dynasty and the Maccabees of the Kingdom of Israel (ca 140-37 BC). Map of the Kingdom of Herod.
DATE: ca 30 BC - Cleopatra of Egypt died
DATE: ca 30-27 BC - Caesar Augustus began ruling as first Emperor of the Roman Empire

Harmony reading: 2 (Oct 1)

DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, ordered a census of the entire empire; Luke 2:1.
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Quirinius, governor of Syria ordered a census in Judea (Luke 2:2)
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Jesus was born in Bethlehem
DATE: ca   4 BC - in Judea Herod the Great died. He had rebuilt the 2nd Temple in Jerusalem, calling it Herod's Temple.
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod "Archelaus" replaced his father Herod as king of Judea until banished in 6 AD. (See Iudaea Province). (Matt 2:13-23)
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod Antipas replaced his father Herod as the tetrarch of Roman province of Galilee and Perea
DATE: ca 4 BC - Philip the Tetrarch replaced his father Herod as Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis 4 BC Ė 34 AD
DATE: ca 6 BC - Herod "Archelaus" was exiled to Gaul and Augustus made Samaria, Judea, and Idumea a Roman province Iudaea.
DATE: ca 6 AD - Annas High Priest officially from 6-15 AD, but who lived until assasinated in 66 AD
DATE: ca 14 AD - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, died.

Harmony reading: 3 (Oct 2)

DATE: ca 14 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire, began his reign
DATE: ca 18 AD - Caiaphas High Priest from 18-36 AD (John 18:13 - son-in-law of Annas)
DATE: ca 21 AD - Quirinius, governor of Syria died
DATE: ca 26 AD - Pontius Pilate became the fifth Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire is mentioned in his 15th year (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 29 AD - Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - John the Baptist began his ministry (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Jesus began his ministry around the age of 30, soon after John

Harmony reading: later (Oct ?)

DATE: ca ? AD - around the age of 33, Jesus was crucified after being tried by Pontius Pilate and High Priest Annas
DATE: ca 34 AD - Philip the Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis died
DATE: ca 36 AD - Pontius Pilate was exiled to Gaul, perhaps by the cruel and insane Caligula who ruled Rome from 37Ė41 AD
DATE: ca 37 AD - Tiberius, Emperor of the Roman Empire, died and was followed by Caligula (AD 37Ė41) who claimed divinity
DATE: ca 39 AD - Tetrarch Herod Antipas was exiled from Galilee and Perea by his nephew Agrippa I who took over Galilee and Perea

Next harmony chart

Persia and Judah - Persia (Persian Empire) aka Achaemenid Empire c 550-330 BC; with maps; included what had been Babylon, 539 BC

more before:
DATE: ca 430-420 BC - Some think late in the reign of Artaxerxes I Longimanus or early in the reign of Darius II (ca 423-404 BC), Malachi wrote warnings and promises from the LORD.

Persian Empire kings - links to Wikipedia for information on kings of the Persian Empire from 559-330 BC

Empires governing the Israel in the Middle East - from 746 BC to current; lists of empires

Assyria - Second Empire of ASSYRIA with maps; 746-609 BC

Babylonia - NEO BABYLONIAN Empire with maps; ca. 627-539 BC

Egypt & Judah - Egypt neighbored Israel to the southwest

Final prophets and kings of Judah

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