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October 7   - Day 280 New Testament Day 8 of 99
* Gospel Study Indexes: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* Online Bible DICTIONARY Index
* BOOKS to buy about Gospel, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Amazon.com
* Map of Galilee
Commentary:
When Words of Praise Don't Count
John 4-5

Local History: (The Roman Empire and Israel)
John 2:20, with the Temple then 46 years old, dates this year about 28 AD.
Herod began repairing the 500 year old Temple about 18 BC. More on Herod's Temple

Scriptures: (96vs)
* John 2:13-25 (13vs),   3:1-36 (36vs),   4:1-4 (4vs)   * Matthew 9:9-17 (9vs)   * Mark 2:13-22 (10vs)   * Luke 5:1-11 (11vs),   5:27-39 (13vs)


  Jesus taught at the seaside:   Luke 5:1-11 (11vs)
Now it happened, while the multitude pressed on him and heard the word of God, that he was standing by the lake of Gennesaret.

He saw two boats standing by the lake, but the fishermen had gone out of them, and were washing their nets.

He entered into one of the boats, which was Simon’s, and asked him to put out a little from the land. He sat down and taught the multitudes from the boat.

When he had finished speaking, he said to Simon,

“Put out into the deep, and let down your nets for a catch.”

Simon answered him,

“Master, we worked all night, and took nothing; but at your word I will let down the net.”

When they had done this, they caught a great multitude of fish, and their net was breaking. They beckoned to their partners in the other boat, that they should come and help them. They came, and filled both boats, so that they began to sink.

But Simon Peter, when he saw it, fell down at Jesus’ knees, saying,

“Depart from me, for I am a sinful man, Lord.”

For he was amazed, and all who were with him, at the catch of fish which they had caught;
and so also were James and John, sons of Zebedee, who were partners with Simon.
Jesus said to Simon,

“Don’t be afraid. From now on you will be catching people alive.”

When they had brought their boats to land, they left everything, and followed him.


  Jesus called Matthew (or Levi) at his tax office:   Matthew 9:9-13 (5vs)

As Jesus passed by from there, he saw a man called Matthew sitting at the tax collection office.

He said to him,

"Follow me."
He got up and followed him.

It happened as he sat in the house, behold, many tax collectors and sinners came and sat down with Jesus and his disciples.

When the Pharisees saw it, they said to his disciples,

"Why does your teacher eat with tax collectors and sinners?"
When Jesus heard it, he said to them,
"Those who are healthy have no need for a physician,
but those who are sick do.

But you go and learn what this means:

'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,' [* Hos 6:6]
for I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance."


  Jesus called Levi working in his tax office:   Luke 5:27-32 (6vs)

After these things he went out, and saw a tax collector named Levi
sitting at the tax office, and said to him,

"Follow me!"
He left everything, and rose up and followed him.

Levi made a great feast for him in his house. There was a great crowd of tax collectors and others who were reclining with them.

Their scribes and the Pharisees murmured against his disciples, saying,

"Why do you eat and drink with the tax collectors and sinners?"
Jesus answered them,
"Those who are healthy have no need for a physician, but those who are sick do.

I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance."


  Jesus called Levi working in his tax office:   Mark 2:13-14 (2vs)
He went out again by the seaside.
All the multitude came to him, and he taught them.
As he passed by, he saw Levi, the son of Alphaeus, sitting at the tax office, and he said to him,
“Follow me.”
And he arose and followed him.
  Controversy - why associate with sinners?   Mark 2:15-17 (3vs)
It happened, that he was reclining at the table in his house, and many tax collectors and sinners sat down with Jesus and his disciples, for there were many, and they followed him.

The scribes and the Pharisees, when they saw that he was eating with the sinners and tax collectors, said to his disciples,

"Why is it that he eats and drinks with tax collectors and sinners?"

When Jesus heard it, he said to them,

"Those who are healthy have no need for a physician, but those who are sick.

I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance."


  Passover, soon after the Cana wedding:
    Jesus' final purging of the Temple
  John 2:13-25 (13vs)
The Passover of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.

He found in the temple those who sold oxen, sheep, and doves, and the changers of money sitting.

He made a whip of cords, and threw all out of the temple,
both the sheep and the oxen;
and he poured out the changers’ money, and overthrew their tables.

To those who sold the doves, he said,

"Take these things out of here!
Don’t make my Father’s house a marketplace!"

His disciples remembered that it was written,

"Zeal for your house will eat me up." *

The Jews therefore answered him,

“What sign do you show us, seeing that you do these things?”

Jesus answered them,

“Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.”

The Jews therefore said,

“It took forty-six years to build this temple!     [ca 18 BC to 28 AD?, repairing Herod's Temple]
Will you raise it up in three days?”

But he spoke of the temple of his body.
When therefore he was raised from the dead,
his disciples remembered that he said this,
    and they believed the Scripture, and the word which Jesus had said.

Now when he was in Jerusalem at the Passover,
during the feast,
many believed in his name, observing his signs which he did.

But Jesus didn’t trust himself to them, because he knew everyone,
and because he didn’t need for anyone to testify concerning man;
for he himself knew what was in man.


  During Passover, Jesus met Nicodemus at night:   John 3:1-21 (21vs)
Now there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews. The same came to him by night, and said to him,
"Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God, for no one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him."
Jesus answered him,
"Most certainly, I tell you, unless one is born anew, he can’t see the Kingdom of God."
Nicodemus said to him,
"How can a man be born when he is old?

Can he enter a second time into his mother’s womb, and be born?”

Jesus answered,

"Most certainly I tell you, unless one is born of water and spirit,
he can’t enter into the Kingdom of God!
That which is born of the flesh is flesh.
That which is born of the Spirit is spirit.

Don’t marvel that I said to you,

'You must be born anew.'
The wind blows where it wants to, and you hear its sound,
but don’t know where it comes from and where it is going.
So is everyone who is born of the Spirit."

Nicodemus answered him,

"How can these things be?"
Jesus answered him,
"Are you the teacher of Israel, and don’t understand these things?
Most certainly I tell you, we speak that which we know,
and testify of that which we have seen,
and you don’t receive our witness.

If I told you earthly things and you don’t believe,
how will you believe if I tell you heavenly things?

No one has ascended into heaven, but he who descended
out of heaven, the Son of Man, who is in heaven.

As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness,
even so must the Son of Man be lifted up,

that whoever believes in him should not perish,
but have eternal life.

For God so loved the world, that he gave his one and only Son,
that whoever believes in him should not perish,
but have eternal life.

For God didn’t send his Son into the world to judge the world,
but that the world should be saved through him.

He who believes in him is not judged.
He who doesn’t believe has been judged already,
because he has not believed in the name of the one and only Son of God.

This is the judgment, that the light has come into the world,
and men loved the darkness rather than the light;
for their works were evil.

For everyone who does evil hates the light,
and doesn’t come to the light, lest his works would be exposed.

But he who does the truth comes to the light,
that his works may be revealed,
that they have been done in God.”


  Jesus and John the Baptist baptizing at the Jordan:   John 3:22-24 (2vs)
After these things, Jesus came with his disciples into the land of Judea.

He stayed there with them, and baptized.

John also was baptizing in Enon near Salim, because there was much water there.

They came, and were baptized. For John was not yet thrown into prison.


  John the Baptist's disciples question baptism (purification):   John 3:25-36 (12vs)
There arose therefore a questioning on the part of John’s disciples with some Jews about purification.

They came to John, and said to him,

"Rabbi, he who was with you beyond the Jordan, to whom you have testified,
behold, the same baptizes, and everyone is coming to him."

John answered,

"A man can receive nothing, unless it has been given him from heaven.

You yourselves testify that I said,

'I am not the Christ,'
but,
'I have been sent before him.'

He who has the bride is the bridegroom;
but the friend of the bridegroom, who stands and hears him,
rejoices greatly because of the bridegroom’s voice.
This, my joy, therefore is made full.

He must increase, but I must decrease.

He who comes from above is above all.
He who is from the Earth belongs to the Earth, and speaks of the Earth.
He who comes from heaven is above all.

What he has seen and heard, of that he testifies;
and no one receives his witness.

He who has received his witness has set his seal to this, that God is true.

For he whom God has sent speaks the words of God; for God gives the Spirit without measure.

The Father loves the Son, and has given all things into his hand.

One who believes in the Son has eternal life,
but one who disobeys the Son won’t see life,
but the wrath of God remains on him. "


  John the Baptist's disciples ask about fasting:
    Jesus' parables: Bridegroom, new cloth; old and new wineskins
  Mark 2:18-22 (5vs)
John’s disciples and the Pharisees were fasting, and they came and asked him,
"Why do John’s disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples don’t fast?"

Jesus said to them,

"Can the groomsmen fast while the bridegroom is with them?
As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they can’t fast.

But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them,
and then will they fast in that day.

No one sews a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment,
or else the patch shrinks and the new tears away from the old,
and a worse hole is made.

No one puts new wine into old wineskins,
or else the new wine will burst the skins,
and the wine pours out, and the skins will be destroyed;
but they put new wine into fresh wineskins."


  John the Baptist's disciples ask about fasting:
    Jesus' parables: Bridegroom, new cloth; old and new wineskins
  Matthew 9:14-17 (4vs)

Then John’s disciples came to him, saying,

"Why do we and the Pharisees fast often, but your disciples don’t fast?"
Jesus said to them,
"Can the friends of the bridegroom mourn, as long as the bridegroom is with them?
But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then they will fast.

No one puts a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment; for the patch would tear away from the garment, and a worse hole is made.

Neither do people put new wine into old wineskins, or else the skins would burst, and the wine be spilled, and the skins ruined.

No, they put new wine into fresh wineskins, and both are preserved."


  John the Baptist's disciples ask about fasting:
    Jesus' parables: Bridegroom, new cloth; old and new wineskins
  Luke 5:33-39 (7vs)

They said to him,

"Why do John’s disciples often fast and pray,
likewise also the disciples of the Pharisees,
but yours eat and drink?"
He said to them,
"Can you make the friends of the bridegroom fast, while the bridegroom is with them?
But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them. Then they will fast in those days."

He also told a parable to them.

"No one puts a piece from a new garment on an old garment,
or else he will tear the new,
and also the piece from the new will not match the old.

No one puts new wine into old wineskins, or else the new wine will burst the skins,
and it will be spilled, and the skins will be destroyed.

But new wine must be put into fresh wineskins, and both are preserved.

No man having drunk old wine immediately desires new, for he says,

'The old is better.'"


  Jesus left John the Baptist in Judea:   John 4:1-4 (4vs)
Therefore when the Lord knew that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John
(although Jesus himself didn’t baptize, but his disciples), he left Judea, and departed into Galilee.

He needed to pass through Samaria.


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Map of Palestine Israel during Jesus' life


Local HISTORY charts: Roman Empire and the Messiah in Israel
DATE: ca 51 BC - Quirinius, became governor of Syria
DATE: 44 BC - Julius Caesar was murdered; last Caesar of the Roman Republic. Civil war followed.

Harmony reading: 1 (Sept 30)

DATE: ca 37 (or 40) BC - Herod the Great began his reign in Judea, killing off the Hasmonean Dynasty and the Maccabees of the Kingdom of Israel (ca 140-37 BC). Map of the Kingdom of Herod.
DATE: ca 30 BC - Cleopatra of Egypt died
DATE: ca 30-27 BC - Caesar Augustus began ruling as first Emperor of the Roman Empire

Harmony reading: 2 (Oct 1)

DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, ordered a census of the entire empire; Luke 2:1.
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Quirinius, governor of Syria ordered a census in Judea (Luke 2:2)
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Jesus was born in Bethlehem
DATE: ca   4 BC - in Judea Herod the Great died. He had rebuilt the 2nd Temple in Jerusalem, calling it Herod's Temple.
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod "Archelaus" replaced his father Herod as king of Judea until banished in 6 AD. (See Iudaea Province). (Matt 2:13-23)
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod Antipas replaced his father Herod as the tetrarch of Roman province of Galilee and Perea
DATE: ca 4 BC - Philip the Tetrarch replaced his father Herod as Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis 4 BC – 34 AD
DATE: ca 6 BC - Herod "Archelaus" was exiled to Gaul and Augustus made Samaria, Judea, and Idumea a Roman province Iudaea.
DATE: ca 6 AD - Annas High Priest officially from 6-15 AD, but who lived until assasinated in 66 AD
DATE: ca 14 AD - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, died.

Harmony reading: 3 (Oct 2)

DATE: ca 14 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire, began his reign
DATE: ca 18 AD - Caiaphas High Priest from 18-36 AD (John 18:13 - son-in-law of Annas)
DATE: ca 21 AD - Quirinius, governor of Syria died
DATE: ca 26 AD - Pontius Pilate became the fifth Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire is mentioned in his 15th year (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 29 AD - Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - John the Baptist began his ministry (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Jesus began his ministry around the age of 30, soon after John

Harmony reading: later (Oct ?)

DATE: ca ? AD - around the age of 33, Jesus was crucified after being tried by Pontius Pilate and High Priest Annas
DATE: ca 34 AD - Philip the Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis died
DATE: ca 36 AD - Pontius Pilate was exiled to Gaul, perhaps by the cruel and insane Caligula who ruled Rome from 37–41 AD
DATE: ca 37 AD - Tiberius, Emperor of the Roman Empire, died and was followed by Caligula (AD 37–41) who claimed divinity
DATE: ca 39 AD - Tetrarch Herod Antipas was exiled from Galilee and Perea by his nephew Agrippa I who took over Galilee and Perea

Next harmony chart

Persia and Judah - Persia (Persian Empire) aka Achaemenid Empire c 550-330 BC; with maps; included what had been Babylon, 539 BC

more before:
DATE: ca 430-420 BC - Some think late in the reign of Artaxerxes I Longimanus or early in the reign of Darius II (ca 423-404 BC), Malachi wrote warnings and promises from the LORD.

Persian Empire kings - links to Wikipedia for information on kings of the Persian Empire from 559-330 BC

Empires governing the Israel in the Middle East - from 746 BC to current; lists of empires

Assyria - Second Empire of ASSYRIA with maps; 746-609 BC

Babylonia - NEO BABYLONIAN Empire with maps; ca. 627-539 BC

Egypt & Judah - Egypt neighbored Israel to the southwest

Final prophets and kings of Judah

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