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October 21   - Day 294
* Gospel Study Indexes: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* Books to buy on Gospel, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Amazon.com
* Dictionary:     Moses     Law of Moses     Temple
* Map of Galilee
Commentary:
Speaking With Parables and Proverbs
Lk 16-18

Local History: (The Roman Empire and Israel)

Scriptures: (108vs)
* Luke 15:25-32 (8vs)   16:1-31 (31vs)   17:1-37 (37vs)   18:1-17 (17vs);   Matthew 18:6-10 (5vs)   Mark 9:41-50 (10vs)  


Lost and Found; How Blessings Can Be Missed:
  Jesus' parable - The Lost Son's Older Brother
  Luke 15:25-32 (8vs)

Now his elder son was in the field. As he came near to the house, he heard music and dancing.

He called one of the servants to him, and asked what was going on.

He said to him,

'Your brother has come,
and your father has killed the fattened calf,
because he has received him back safe and healthy.'
But he was angry, and would not go in.

Therefore his father came out, and begged him.

But he answered his father,

'Behold, these many years I have served you, and I never disobeyed a commandment of yours, but you never gave me a goat, that I might celebrate with my friends.

But when this, your son, came, who has devoured your living with prostitutes, you killed the fattened calf for him.'

He said to him,
'Son, you are always with me,
and all that is mine is yours.
But it was appropriate to celebrate and be glad,
for this, your brother, was dead,
and is alive again.
He was lost, and is found.'"


  What was it like to follow Jesus? (Luke's research continued)
  Jesus wove parables and teaching with people asking for healing or information
  Jesus' parable: The Unrighteous Steward
    a wise, dishonest money manager
  Luke 16:1-13 (13vs)
He also said to his disciples,
"There was a certain rich man who had a manager.
An accusation was made to him that this man was wasting his possessions.
He called him, and said to him,
'What is this that I hear about you?
Give an accounting of your management, for you can no longer be manager.'
"The manager said within himself,
'What will I do, seeing that my lord is taking away the management position from me?
I don’t have strength to dig. I am ashamed to beg.

I know what I will do, so that when I am removed from management, they may receive me into their houses.'

Calling each one of his lord’s debtors to him, he said to the first,
'How much do you owe to my lord?'
He said,
'A hundred batos of oil.'
He said to him,
'Take your bill, and sit down quickly and write fifty.'
Then said he to another,
‘How much do you owe?’
He said,
‘A hundred cors of wheat.’
He said to him,
‘Take your bill, and write eighty.’
“His lord commended the dishonest manager because he had done wisely,
for the children of this world are, in their own generation,
wiser than the children of the light.

I tell you, make for yourselves friends by means of unrighteous mammon,
so that when you fail, they may receive you into the eternal tents.

He who is faithful in a very little is faithful also in much.
He who is dishonest in a very little is also dishonest in much.

If therefore you have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches?

If you have not been faithful in that which is another’s, who will give you that which is your own?

No servant can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one,
and love the other; or else he will hold to one,
and despise the other. You aren’t able to serve God and mammon."


  Some take pride in their money and scoff at Jesus:   Luke 16:14-15 (2vs)

The Pharisees, who were lovers of money, also heard all these things,
and they scoffed at him.

He said to them,

"You are those who justify yourselves in the sight of men,
but God knows your hearts. For that which is exalted among men
is an abomination in the sight of God.

  Law and the prophets -> Good news of the Kingdom of God:   Luke 16:16-18 (3vs)
The law and the prophets were until John.
From that time the Good News of the Kingdom of God is preached,
and everyone is forcing his way into it.

But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away, than for one tiny stroke of a pen in the law to fall.

Everyone who divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery.
He who marries one who is divorced from a husband commits adultery.


  Jesus' parable: Rich man and Lazarus the beggar:   Luke 16:19-31 (13vs)

“Now there was a certain rich man, and he was clothed in purple and fine linen, living in luxury every day.

A certain beggar, named Lazarus, was laid at his gate, full of sores,
and desiring to be fed with the crumbs that fell from the rich man’s table.
Yes, even the dogs came and licked his sores.

It happened that the beggar died, and that he was carried away by the angels to Abraham’s bosom.
The rich man also died, and was buried.
In Hades, he lifted up his eyes, being in torment,
and saw Abraham far off, and Lazarus at his bosom.

He cried and said,

'Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus,
that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue!
For I am in anguish in this flame.'
“But Abraham said,
'Son, remember that you, in your lifetime, received your good things,
and Lazarus, in like manner, bad things.
But now here he is comforted and you are in anguish.

Besides all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed, * note
that those who want to pass from here to you are not able,
and that none may cross over from there to us.'

"He said,
'I ask you therefore, father, that you would send him to my father’s house;
for I have five brothers, that he may testify to them,
so they won’t also come into this place of torment.'
"But Abraham said to him,
'They have Moses and the prophets. Let them listen to them.'
"He said,
'No, father Abraham, but if one goes to them from the dead, they will repent.’
"He said to him,
'If they don’t listen to Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded if one rises from the dead.'"


  Be careful to forgive and not trip another up:   Luke 17:1-4 (4vs)

He said to the disciples,

"It is impossible that no occasions of stumbling should come, but woe to him through whom they come!

It would be better for him if a millstone were hung around his neck, and he were thrown into the sea,
rather than that he should cause one of these little ones to stumble.

Be careful. If your brother sins against you, rebuke him.
If he repents, forgive him.
If he sins against you seven times in the day, and seven times returns, saying,

'I repent,'
you shall forgive him."


      Avoid causing other believers to stumble:   Matthew 18:6-10 (5vs)

(thought continued from Oct 18)

"but whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to stumble,
it would be better for him that a huge millstone should be hung around his neck,
and that he should be sunk in the depths of the sea.

Woe to the world because of occasions of stumbling!
For it must be that the occasions come,
but woe to that person through whom the occasion comes!

If your hand or your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off,
and cast it from you. It is better for you to enter into life
maimed or crippled, rather than having two hands or two feet
to be cast into the eternal fire.

If your eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out, and cast it from you.
It is better for you to enter into life with one eye,
rather than having two eyes to be cast into the Gehenna of fire.

See that you don’t despise one of these little ones,
for I tell you that in heaven
their angels always see the face of my Father who is in heaven."


      Don't cause believers in Christ to stumble:   Mark 9:41-50 (10vs)
"For whoever will give you a cup of water to drink in my name,
because you are Christ’s,
most certainly I tell you, he will in no way lose his reward.

Whoever will cause one of these little ones who believe in me to stumble,
it would be better for him if he was thrown into the sea with a millstone hung around his neck.

If your hand causes you to stumble, cut it off.
It is better for you to enter into life maimed,
rather than having your two hands to go into Gehenna, into the unquenchable fire,

'where their worm doesn’t die, and the fire is not quenched.' [Isaiah 66:24]
If your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off.
It is better for you to enter into life lame,
rather than having your two feet to be cast into Gehenna, into the fire that will never be quenched —
'where their worm doesn’t die, and the fire is not quenched.' Isa 66:24
If your eye causes you to stumble, cast it out. It is better for you to enter into the Kingdom of God with one eye,
rather than having two eyes to be cast into the Gehenna of fire,
'where their worm doesn’t die, and the fire is not quenched.' [Isa 66:24]

For everyone will be salted with fire,
and every sacrifice will be seasoned with salt.

Salt is good, but if the salt has lost its saltiness,
with what will you season it?

Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with one another."


  Jesus' parable: Unprofitable Servants   Luke 17:5-10 (6vs)

17:5 The apostles said to the Lord,

"Increase our faith."
The Lord said,
"If you had faith like a grain of mustard seed, you would tell this sycamore tree,
'Be uprooted, and be planted in the sea,'
and it would obey you. But who is there among you, having a servant plowing or keeping sheep,
that will say, when he comes in from the field,
'Come immediately and sit down at the table,'
and will not rather tell him,
'Prepare my supper, clothe yourself properly, and serve me, while I eat and drink. Afterward you shall eat and drink?'
Does he thank that servant because he did the things that were commanded? I think not.

Even so you also, when you have done all the things that are commanded you, say,

'We are unworthy servants. We have done our duty.'"


  The thankful Samaritan healed leper:   Luke 17:11-19 (6vs)

It happened as he was on his way to Jerusalem, that he was passing along the borders of Samaria and Galilee.
As he entered into a certain village, ten men who were lepers met him, who stood at a distance.

They lifted up their voices, saying,

"Jesus, Master, have mercy on us!"
When he saw them, he said to them,
"Go and show yourselves to the priests."
It happened that as they went, they were cleansed.

One of them, when he saw that he was healed, turned back, glorifying God with a loud voice.

He fell on his face at Jesus’ feet, giving him thanks;
and he was a Samaritan.

Jesus answered,

"Weren’t the ten cleansed? But where are the nine?
Were there none found who returned to give glory to God, except this stranger?"
Then he said to him,
"Get up, and go your way. Your faith has healed you."

  When will the Kingdom of God come?   Luke 17:20-21 (2vs)
Being asked by the Pharisees when the Kingdom of God would come, he answered them,
"The Kingdom of God doesn’t come with observation;
neither will they say,
'Look, here!’ or, ‘Look, there!'
for behold, the Kingdom of God is within you."

  Another example of what you will see and not see:   Luke 17:22-24 (3vs)

He said to the disciples,

"The days will come, when you will desire to see one of the days of the Son of Man, and you will not see it. They will tell you,
'Look, here!' or 'Look, there!'
Don’t go away, nor follow after them,
for as the lightning, when it flashes out of the one part under the sky,
shines to the other part under the sky;
so will the Son of Man be in his day.

  The Son of Man would suffer and be rejected:   Luke 17:25 (1vs)
But first, he must suffer many things and be rejected by this generation.

  Things to expect as the day of the Son of Man is revealed:   Luke 17:26-37 (12vs)
As it happened in the days of Noah, even so will it be also in the days of the Son of Man.
They ate, they drank, they married, they were given in marriage,
until the day that Noah entered into the ship,
and the flood came, and destroyed them all.

Likewise, even as it happened in the days of Lot:
they ate, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they built;
but in the day that Lot went out from Sodom,
it rained fire and sulfur from the sky, and destroyed them all.

It will be the same way in the day that the Son of Man is revealed.

In that day, he who will be on the housetop, and his goods in the house,
let him not go down to take them away.
Let him who is in the field likewise not turn back.

Remember Lot’s wife!

Whoever seeks to save his life loses it, but whoever loses his life preserves it.

I tell you, in that night there will be two people in one bed.
The one will be taken, and the other will be left.

There will be two grinding grain together.
One will be taken, and the other will be left."

17:36 Note for 17:36 - Some Greek manuscripts add:
"Two will be in the field: the one taken, and the other left.”
They, answering, asked him,
"Where, Lord?"
He said to them,
"Where the body is, there will the vultures also be gathered together."


  Jesus' parable: The Unrighteous Judge
    Case of the irritating widow and the judge
  Luke 18:1-8 (8vs)
He also spoke a parable to them that they must always pray, and not give up, saying,
"There was a judge in a certain city who didn’t fear God, and didn’t respect man.
A widow was in that city, and she often came to him, saying,
Defend me from my adversary!'
He wouldn’t for a while, but afterward he said to himself,
'Though I neither fear God, nor respect man,
yet because this widow bothers me, I will defend her,
or else she will wear me out by her continual coming.'"
The Lord said,
"Listen to what the unrighteous judge says.
Won’t God avenge his chosen ones,
who are crying out to him day and night,
and yet he exercises patience with them?
I tell you that he will avenge them quickly.
Nevertheless, when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith on the earth?"


  Jesus' parable: The Pharisee and Publican
    Why Jesus came for the humble, not the righteous
  Luke 18:9-14 (6vs)
He spoke also this parable to certain people who were convinced of their own righteousness, and who despised all others.
"Two men went up into the temple to pray;
one was a Pharisee, and the other was a tax collector.
The Pharisee stood and prayed to himself like this:
'God, I thank you, that I am not like the rest of men,
extortioners, unrighteous, adulterers, or even like this tax collector.
I fast twice a week.
I give tithes of all that I get.'
But the tax collector, standing far away, wouldn’t even lift up his eyes to heaven, but beat his breast, saying,
'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!' *
I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other;
for everyone who exalts himself will be humbled,
but he who humbles himself will be exalted."


  Children were welcomed by Jesus:   Luke 18:15-17 (3vs)
They were also bringing their babies to him,
that he might touch them.
But when the disciples saw it, they rebuked them.

Jesus summoned them, saying,

"Allow the little children to come to me, and don’t hinder them,
for the Kingdom of God belongs to such as these.

Most certainly, I tell you,
whoever doesn’t receive the Kingdom of God like a little child, he will in no way enter into it."


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Map of Palestine Israel during Jesus' life


Local HISTORY charts: Roman Empire and the Messiah in Israel
DATE: ca 51 BC - Quirinius, became governor of Syria
DATE: 44 BC - Julius Caesar was murdered; last Caesar of the Roman Republic. Civil war followed.

Harmony reading: 1 (Sept 30)

DATE: ca 37 (or 40) BC - Herod the Great began his reign in Judea, killing off the Hasmonean Dynasty and the Maccabees of the Kingdom of Israel (ca 140-37 BC). Map of the Kingdom of Herod.
DATE: ca 30 BC - Cleopatra of Egypt died
DATE: ca 30-27 BC - Caesar Augustus began ruling as first Emperor of the Roman Empire

Harmony reading: 2 (Oct 1)

DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, ordered a census of the entire empire; Luke 2:1.
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Quirinius, governor of Syria ordered a census in Judea (Luke 2:2)
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Jesus was born in Bethlehem
DATE: ca   4 BC - in Judea Herod the Great died. He had rebuilt the 2nd Temple in Jerusalem, calling it Herod's Temple.
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod "Archelaus" replaced his father Herod as king of Judea until banished in 6 AD. (See Iudaea Province). (Matt 2:13-23)
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod Antipas replaced his father Herod as the tetrarch of Roman province of Galilee and Perea
DATE: ca 4 BC - Philip the Tetrarch replaced his father Herod as Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis 4 BC – 34 AD
DATE: ca 6 BC - Herod "Archelaus" was exiled to Gaul and Augustus made Samaria, Judea, and Idumea a Roman province Iudaea.
DATE: ca 6 AD - Annas High Priest officially from 6-15 AD, but who lived until assasinated in 66 AD
DATE: ca 14 AD - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, died.

Harmony reading: 3 (Oct 2)

DATE: ca 14 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire, began his reign
DATE: ca 18 AD - Caiaphas High Priest from 18-36 AD (John 18:13 - son-in-law of Annas)
DATE: ca 21 AD - Quirinius, governor of Syria died
DATE: ca 26 AD - Pontius Pilate became the fifth Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire is mentioned in his 15th year (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 29 AD - Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - John the Baptist began his ministry (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Jesus began his ministry around the age of 30, soon after John

Harmony reading: later (Oct ?)

DATE: ca ? AD - around the age of 33, Jesus was crucified after being tried by Pontius Pilate and High Priest Annas
DATE: ca 34 AD - Philip the Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis died
DATE: ca 36 AD - Pontius Pilate was exiled to Gaul, perhaps by the cruel and insane Caligula who ruled Rome from 37–41 AD
DATE: ca 37 AD - Tiberius, Emperor of the Roman Empire, died and was followed by Caligula (AD 37–41) who claimed divinity
DATE: ca 39 AD - Tetrarch Herod Antipas was exiled from Galilee and Perea by his nephew Agrippa I who took over Galilee and Perea

Next harmony chart

Persia and Judah - Persia (Persian Empire) aka Achaemenid Empire c 550-330 BC; with maps; included what had been Babylon, 539 BC

more before:
DATE: ca 430-420 BC - Some think late in the reign of Artaxerxes I Longimanus or early in the reign of Darius II (ca 423-404 BC), Malachi wrote warnings and promises from the LORD.

Persian Empire kings - links to Wikipedia for information on kings of the Persian Empire from 559-330 BC

Empires governing the Israel in the Middle East - from 746 BC to current; lists of empires

Assyria - Second Empire of ASSYRIA with maps; 746-609 BC

Babylonia - NEO BABYLONIAN Empire with maps; ca. 627-539 BC

Egypt & Judah - Egypt neighbored Israel to the southwest

Final prophets and kings of Judah

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