Commentary: Jo 12-14:21
Words to Keep, Speak, and Obey
: Local History (
The Roman Empire and Israel)
* Mark 21:12-27 (16vs) 11:11-33 (23vs)
* 19:28-48 (21vs) 20:1-8 (8vs) John
Triumphal entry into Jerusalem, 1st day of Passover: (13vs) Luke 19:28-40
Having said these things, he went on ahead, going up to Jerusalem.
It happened, when he drew near to Bethsphage and Bethany,
at the mountain that is called Olivet, he sent two of his disciples,
saying, "Go your way into the village on the other side,
Those who were sent went away, and found things just as he had told them.
in which, as you enter, you will find a colt tied, whereon no man ever yet sat. Untie it, and bring it.
If anyone asks you,
'Why are you untying it?' say to him: 'The Lord needs it.'"
As they were untying the colt, its owners said to them,
"Why are you untying the colt?"
They said, "The Lord needs it."
They brought it to Jesus. They threw their cloaks on the colt, and set Jesus on them.
As he went, they spread their cloaks in the way.
As he was now getting near, at the descent of the Mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the disciples began to rejoice and praise God with a loud voice for all the mighty works which they had seen,
Some of the Pharisees from the multitude said to him, Blessed is the King who comes in the name of the Lord! * Ps 118:26
Peace in heaven, and glory in the highest!" "Teacher, rebuke your disciples!"
He answered them, "I tell you that if these were silent, the stones would cry out."
1st day of Passover: Jesus wept over Jerusalem
Jesus sees Jerusalem and the temple, and weeps: (4vs) Luke 19:41-44
When he drew near, he saw the city and wept over it,
"If you, even you, had known today the things which belong to your peace!
But now, they are hidden from your eyes.
For the days will come on you, when your enemies will throw up a barricade against you, surround you, hem you in on every side,
and will dash you and your children within you to the ground. They will not leave in you one stone on another, because you didn’t know the time of your visitation."
1st day of Passover: Taught and visited the Temple
Jerusalem - Introduced and talked to some Greek Jews about his glorification and death: (7vs) John 12:20-26
Now there were certain Greeks among those that went up to worship at the feast.
These, therefore, came to
Philip, who was from Bethsaida of Galilee, and asked him, saying,
"Sir, we want to see Jesus."
Philip came and told Andrew, and in turn, Andrew came with Philip, and they told Jesus.
Jesus answered them, “The
time has come for the Son of Man to be glorified.
Most certainly I tell you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains by itself alone. But if it dies, it bears much fruit.
He who loves his life will lose it. He who hates his life in this world will keep it to eternal life.
If anyone serves me, let him follow me. Where I am, there will my servant also be. If anyone
serves me, the Father will honor him."
Jerusalem - Attracted the attention of the multitude: (10vs) John 12:27-36
" Now my Then there came a voice out of the sky, saying, soul is troubled. What shall I say? ‘Father, save me from this time?’ But for this cause I came to this time.
Father, glorify your name!"
“I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again.”
The multitude therefore, who stood by and heard it, said that it had thundered. Others said, “An angel has spoken to him."
Jesus answered, “This voice hasn’t come for my sake, but for your sakes.
But he said this, signifying by what kind of death he should die.
Now is the judgment of this world.
Now the prince of this world will be cast out.
And I, if I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself."
The multitude answered him,
"We have heard out of the law that the Christ remains forever.
[ Jesus therefore said to them, * Isa 9:7 * Dan 2:44 * Isa 53:8]
How do you say, 'The Who is this Son of Man?"
Son of Man must be lifted up?' "Yet a little while the light is with you.
Jesus said these things, and he departed and hid himself from them.
Walk while you have the light, that darkness doesn’t overtake you. He who walks in the darkness doesn’t know where he is going.
While you have the light, believe in the light, that you may become children of light."
Jerusalem - Despite signs, many continued debating scriptures about Messiah: (14vs) John 12:37-50
But though he had done so many
signs before them, yet they didn’t believe in him,
that the word of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spoke,
“Lord, who has
For this cause they believed our report?
To whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?” * Is 53:1 believe, for couldn’t Isaiah said again,
"He has blinded their
eyes and he hardened their heart,
lest they should see with their eyes,
and perceive with their heart,
and would turn,
and I would heal them." * Is 6:10
Isaiah said these things when he saw his
glory, and spoke of him. *
Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him,
but because of the Pharisees they didn’t confess it, so that they wouldn’t be put out of the synagogue,
for they loved men’s praise more than God’s praise.
Jesus cried out and said,
"Whoever believes in me, believes not in me, but in him who sent me.
He who sees me sees him who sent me.
I have come as a light into the world, that whoever believes in me may not remain in the darkness.
If anyone listens to my sayings, and doesn’t believe, I don’t judge him.
For I came not to judge the world, but to save the world.
He who rejects me, and doesn’t receive my sayings, has one who judges him.
The word that I spoke, the same will judge him in the last day.
For I spoke not from myself, but the Father who sent me, he gave me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak.
I know that his commandment is eternal life. The things therefore which I speak, even as the Father has said to me, so I speak."
1st day of Passover: Jesus arrived in Jerusalem
Jerusalem - to the temple, then to Bethany: (1vs) Mark 11:11
Jesus entered into the temple in Jerusalem.
When he had looked around at everything, it being now evening, he went out to Bethany with the twelve.
1st or 2nd day of Passover: Also see similar purging, earlier
Threw sellers and buyers out the Temple
Jesus entered into the temple of God, and drove out all of those who sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the money changers’ tables and the seats of those who sold the doves.
He said to them,
"It is written,
'My house shall be called a house of prayer, [
but you have made it a den of robbers!" [ Isa 56:7]
Jerusalem - drove commerce out of the temple: (5vs) Mark 11:15-19
They came to Jerusalem, and Jesus entered into the temple, and began to throw out those who sold and those who bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the money changers, and the seats of those who sold the doves.
He would not allow anyone to carry a container through the temple.
He taught, saying to them,
"Isn’t it written,
The chief priests and the scribes heard it, and sought how they might destroy him. For they feared him, because all the multitude was astonished at his teaching.
'My house will be called a house of prayer for all the nations?' [
But you have made it a den of robbers!" [ Isa 56:7] Jer 7:11]
Jerusalem - drove commerce out of the temple: (2vs) Luke 19:45-46
He entered into the temple, and began to drive out those who bought and sold in it,
saying to them,
It is written,
'My house is a house of
but you have made it a prayer,' [ Isa 56:7] 'den of robbers'!" [ Jer 7:11]
1st or 2nd day of Passover: Jesus healed and taught in the Temple started on the 2nd day per Mark 11:11
The blind and the lame came to him in the temple, and he healed them. [
But when the chief priests and the scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children who were crying in the temple and saying,
"Hosanna to the son of David!"
they were indignant,
and said to him,
"Do you hear what these are saying?"
Jesus said to them,
"Yes. Did you never read,
'Out of the mouth of babes and nursing babies you have perfected praise'?"
[ Psa 8:2]
He was teaching daily in the temple,
but the chief priests and the scribes and the leading men among the people sought to destroy him.
They couldn’t find what they might do, for all the people hung on to every word that he said.
2nd day of Passover: A fruitless out-of-season fig tree
The next day, when they had come out from Bethany, he was hungry.
Seeing a fig tree afar off having leaves, he came to see if perhaps he might find anything on it. When he came to it, he found nothing but leaves, for it was not the season for figs.
Jesus told it,
"May no one ever eat fruit from you again!" and his disciples heard it.
He left them, and went out of the city to Bethany, and lodged there.
Now in the morning, as he returned to the city, he was hungry.
Seeing a fig tree by the road, he came to it, and found nothing on it but leaves. He said to it,
"Let there be no fruit from you forever!"
Immediately the fig tree withered away.
When the disciples saw it, they marveled, saying,
"How did the fig tree immediately wither away?"
Jesus answered them,
"Most certainly I tell you, if you have
faith, and don’t doubt, you will not only do what was done to the fig tree, but even if you told this mountain, 'Be taken up and cast into the sea,' it would be done.
All things, whatever you ask in prayer, believing, you will receive."
Jerusalem - dead fig tree a lesson in prayer: (7vs) Mark 11:20-26
As they passed by in the morning, they saw the fig tree withered away from the roots.
Peter, remembering, said to him,
"Rabbi, look! The fig tree which you cursed has withered away."
Jesus answered them,
"Have faith in God.
For most certainly I tell you, whoever may tell this mountain,
'Be taken up and cast into the sea,'
and doesn’t doubt in his heart, but believes that what he says is happening; he shall have whatever he says.
Therefore I tell you, all things whatever you pray and ask for,
believe that you have received them, and you shall have them.
Whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against anyone;
so that your Father, who is in heaven, may also forgive you your transgressions.
But if you do not forgive, neither will your Father in heaven forgive your transgressions."
During Passover: By what authority?
Jerusalem - priests & elders questioned Jesus' authority: (5vs) Matthew 21:23-27
When he had come into the temple, the chief priests and the elders of the people came to him as he was teaching, and said,
"By what authority do you do these things? Who gave you this authority?" [
Jesus answered them, Dan 7:13-14] “I also will ask you one question, which if you tell me,
They reasoned with themselves, saying, I likewise will tell you by what authority I do these things.
The baptism of John, where was it from? From heaven or from men?” “If we say,
They answered Jesus, and said, ‘From heaven,’ he will ask us, ‘Why then did you not believe him?’
But if we say, ‘From men,’ we fear the multitude, for all hold John as a prophet.” “We don’t know.”
He also said to them, "Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things."
They came again to Jerusalem, and as he was walking in the temple, the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders came to him,
and they began saying to him,
"By what authority do you do these things?
Jesus said to them,
Or who gave you this authority to do these things?" "I will ask you one question. Answer me,
They reasoned with themselves, saying,
and I will tell you by what authority I do these things.
The baptism of John — was it from heaven, or from men? Answer me." "If we should say,
— they feared the people, for all held John to really be a prophet.
he will say,
'Why then did you not believe him?'
If we should say,
They answered Jesus,
"We don’t know."
Jesus said to them,
"Neither do I tell you by what authority I do these things."
It happened on one of those days, as he was teaching the people in the temple and preaching the Good News, that the [chief] priests and scribes came to him with the elders.
They asked him, "Tell us: by what authority do you do these things? Or who is giving you this authority?"
He answered them, “I also will ask you one question. Tell me:
the baptism of John, was it from heaven, or from men?”
They reasoned with themselves, saying, “If we say, ‘From heaven,’ he will say, ‘Why didn’t you believe him?’
But if we say, ‘From men,’ all the people will stone us, for they are persuaded that John was a prophet.”
They answered that they didn’t know where it was from.
Jesus said to them, “Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things.”
Map of Palestine Israel during Jesus' life
Local HISTORY charts: Roman Empire and the Messiah in Israel
Harmony reading: 1 (Sept 30)
DATE: ca 37 (or 40) BC - Herod the Great began his reign in Judea, killing off the Hasmonean Dynasty and the Maccabees of the Kingdom of Israel (ca 140-37 BC). Map of the Kingdom of Herod.
DATE: ca 30 BC - Cleopatra of Egypt died
DATE: ca 30-27 BC - Caesar Augustus began ruling as first Emperor of the Roman Empire Harmony reading: 2 (Oct 1)
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, ordered a census of the entire empire; Luke 2:1.
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Quirinius, governor of Syria ordered a census in Judea ( Luke 2:2)
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Jesus was born in Bethlehem
DATE: ca 4 BC - in Judea Herod the Great died. He had rebuilt the 2nd Temple in Jerusalem, calling it Herod's Temple.
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod "Archelaus" replaced his father Herod as king of Judea until banished in 6 AD. (See Iudaea Province). (Matt 2:13-23)
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod Antipas replaced his father Herod as the tetrarch of Roman province of Galilee and Perea
DATE: ca 4 BC - Philip the Tetrarch replaced his father Herod as
Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis
4 BC – 34 AD
DATE: ca 6 BC - Herod "Archelaus" was exiled to Gaul and Augustus made Samaria, Judea, and Idumea a Roman province Iudaea.
DATE: ca 6 AD - Annas High Priest officially from 6-15 AD, but who lived until assasinated in 66 AD
DATE: ca 14 AD - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, died. Harmony reading: 3 (Oct 2)
DATE: ca 14 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire, began his reign
DATE: ca 18 AD - Caiaphas High Priest from 18-36 AD (John 18:13 - son-in-law of Annas)
DATE: ca 21 AD - Quirinius, governor of Syria died
DATE: ca 26 AD - Pontius Pilate became the fifth Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire is mentioned in his 15th year ( Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 29 AD - Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene ( Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - John the Baptist began his ministry ( Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Jesus began his ministry around the age of 30, soon after John
Harmony reading: later (Oct ?)
DATE: ca ? AD - around the age of 33, Jesus was crucified after being tried by Pontius Pilate and High Priest Annas
DATE: ca 34 AD - Philip the Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis died
DATE: ca 36 AD - Pontius Pilate was exiled to Gaul, perhaps by the cruel and insane Caligula who ruled Rome from 37–41 AD
DATE: ca 37 AD - Tiberius, Emperor of the Roman Empire, died and was followed by Caligula (AD 37–41) who claimed divinity
DATE: ca 39 AD - Tetrarch Herod Antipas was exiled from Galilee and Perea by his nephew Agrippa I who took over Galilee and Perea
Next harmony chart
- Persia and Judah Persia (Persian Empire) aka Achaemenid Empire c 550-330 BC; with maps; included what had been Babylon, 539 BC
- links to Wikipedia for information on kings of the Persian Empire from 559-330 BC
Persian Empire kings
- from 746 BC to current; lists of empires
Empires governing the Israel in the Middle East
- Second Empire of ASSYRIA with maps; 746-609 BC
- NEO BABYLONIAN Empire with maps; ca. 627-539 BC
- Egypt neighbored Israel to the southwest
Egypt & Judah
Final prophets and kings of Judah
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