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October 27   - Day 300 - New Testament reading day 28 of 99
* Gospel Study Indexes: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* Introduction to the books of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* Books to buy on Gospel, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Amazon.com
* Dictionary:     Ephraim     Passover feast     Temple
* Map of Galilee
Commentary:
Sending the Son - Messiah! Mk 10:32-12:44

Local History: (The Roman Empire and Israel)

Scriptures: (97vs)

* Matthew 21:28-46 (19vs)   22:15-33 (19vs)   * Mark 12:1-27 (27vs)   * Luke 20:9-40 (32vs)  


  Jesus' parable: the Two Sons
    Changing your mind (repenting); parable unique to Matthew
  Matthew 21:28-32 (5vs)

But what do you think? A man had two sons, and he came to the first, and said,
‘Son, go work today in my vineyard.’

He answered,

‘I will not,’
but afterward he changed his mind, and went.

He came to the second, and said the same thing.

He answered,

‘I go, sir,’
but he didn’t go.

Which of the two did the will of his father?”

They said to him,
“The first.”
Jesus said to them,
“Most certainly I tell you that the tax collectors and the prostitutes are entering into the Kingdom of God before you.

For John came to you in the way of righteousness, and you didn’t believe him,
but the tax collectors and the prostitutes believed him.
When you saw it, you didn’t even repent afterward, that you might believe him.


  Jesus' parable: the Wicked Husbandman (Renter)
    Tenant rejects whoever owner sends; parable in Matthew, Mark, Luke
  Matthew 21:33-46 (14vs)

"Hear another parable.
There was a [certain] man who was a master of a household, who planted a vineyard,
set a hedge about it, dug a winepress in it, built a tower, leased it out to farmers,
and went into another country.

When the season for the fruit drew near, he sent his servants to the farmers, to receive his fruit.

The farmers took his servants, beat one, killed another, and stoned another.

Again, he sent other servants more than the first: and they treated them the same way.

But afterward he sent to them his son, saying,

‘They will respect my son.’

But the farmers, when they saw the son, said among themselves,

‘This is the heir. Come, let’s kill him, and seize his inheritance.’

So they took him, and threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him.

When therefore the lord of the vineyard comes, what will he do to those farmers?”

They told him,

“He will miserably destroy those miserable men,
and will lease out the vineyard to other farmers, who will give him the fruit in its season."

Jesus said to them,

“Did you never read in the Scriptures,
‘The stone which the builders rejected,
the same was made the head of the corner.
This was from the Lord.
It is marvelous in our eyes?’   [Psa 118:22]

"Therefore I tell you, the Kingdom of God will be taken away from you,
and will be given to a nation bringing forth its fruit.

He who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces, but on whoever it will fall, it will scatter him as dust."

When the chief priests and the Pharisees heard his parables, they perceived that he spoke about them.

When they sought to seize him, they feared the multitudes, because they considered him to be a prophet.


  Jesus' parable: the Wicked Husbandman
    Lord of the Rented Vineyard; Many called; in Matthew, Mark, Luke
  Luke 20:9-19 (11vs)

He began to tell the people this parable.

“A man planted a vineyard, and rented it out to some farmers, and went into another country for a long time.

At the proper season, he sent a servant to the farmers to collect his share of the fruit of the vineyard.
But the farmers beat him, and sent him away empty.

He sent yet another servant, and they also beat him, and treated him shamefully, and sent him away empty.

He sent yet a third, and they also wounded him, and threw him out.

The lord of the vineyard said,

‘What shall I do? I will send my beloved son.
It may be that seeing him, they will respect him.’

“But when the farmers saw him, they reasoned among themselves, saying,

‘This is the heir. Come, let’s kill him, that the inheritance may be ours.’

They threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him.

What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do to them?

He will come and destroy these farmers, and will give the vineyard to others.”

When they heard it, they said,
“May it never be!”

But he looked at them, and said,

“Then what is this that is written,
‘The stone which the builders rejected,
the same was made the chief cornerstone?’ [Psa 118:22]

Everyone who falls on that stone will be broken to pieces,
but it will crush whomever it falls on to dust.”

The chief priests and the scribes sought to lay hands on him that very hour,
but they feared the people —
for they knew he had spoken this parable against them.


  Jesus' parable: the Wicked Husbandman (Renter)
    Tenant rejects whoever owner sends; parable in Matthew, Mark, Luke
  Mark 12:1-12 (12vs)

In a parable of the vineyard let out to wicked husbandmen Christ foretells the reprobation of the Jews, and the calling of the Gentiles.

He began to speak to them in parables.

“A man planted a vineyard, put a hedge around it,
dug a pit for the winepress, built a tower,
rented it out to a farmer, and went into another country.

When it was time, he sent a servant to the farmer
to get from the farmer his share of the fruit of the vineyard.

They took him, beat him, and sent him away empty.

Again, he sent another servant to them;
and they threw stones at him, wounded him in the head,
and sent him away shamefully treated.

Again he sent another; and they killed him;
and many others, beating some, and killing some.

Therefore still having one, his beloved son, he sent him last to them, saying,

‘They will respect my son.’

But those farmers said among themselves,

‘This is the heir. Come, let’s kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.’

They took him, killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard.

What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do?
He will come and destroy the farmers, and will give the vineyard to others.

Haven’t you even read this Scripture: [Psa 118:22]

‘The stone which the builders rejected,
the same was made the head of the corner.

This was from the Lord,
it is marvelous in our eyes’?” [Psa 118:22]

They tried to seize him, but they feared the multitude;
for they perceived that he spoke the parable against them.
They left him, and went away.


  Experts tried to trip Jesus up with questions about paying taxes:
  Questions about Taxes:   Matthew 22:15-22 (8vs)

Then the Pharisees went and took counsel how they might entrap him in his talk.

They sent their disciples to him, along with the Herodians, saying,

"Teacher, we know that you are honest, and teach the way of God in truth,
no matter who you teach, for you aren’t partial to anyone.

Tell us therefore, what do you think?
Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?"

But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said,

"Why do you test me, you hypocrites?
Show me the tax money."
They brought to him a denarius.

He asked them,

"Whose is this image and inscription?"
They said to him,
"Caesar’s."
Then he said to them,
"Give therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s,
and to God the things that are God’s."
When they heard it, they marveled, and left him, and went away.


  Questions about Taxes:   Mark 12:13-17 (5vs)

They sent some of the Pharisees and of the Herodians to him, that they might trap him with words.

When they had come, they asked him,

“Teacher, we know that you are honest, and don’t defer to anyone;
for you aren’t partial to anyone,
but truly teach the way of God.
Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?
Shall we give, or shall we not give?
But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said to them,
“Why do you test me? Bring me a denarius, that I may see it.”

They brought it.

He said to them,

“Whose is this image and inscription?”
They said to him,
“Caesar’s.”

Jesus answered them,

“Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s,
and to God the things that are God’s.”
They marveled greatly at him.


  Questions about Taxes:   Luke 20:20-26 (7vs)

They watched him, and sent out spies, who pretended to be righteous,
that they might trap him in something he said,
so as to deliver him up to the power and authority of the governor.

They asked him,

“Teacher, we know that you say and teach what is right,
and aren’t partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God.
Is it lawful for us to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?
But he perceived their craftiness, and said to them,
“Why do you test me?
Show me a denarius.
Whose image and inscription are on it?”
They answered,
“Caesar’s.”

He said to them,

“Then give to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s,
and to God the things that are God’s.”

They weren’t able to trap him in his words before the people.
They marveled at his answer, and were silent.


  Experts tried to trip Jesus up with questions about marriage after resurrection:
  Questions on Marriage and the Resurrection:   Matthew 22:23-33 (11vs)

On that day Sadducees (those who say that there is no resurrection) came to him. They asked him, saying,

“Teacher, Moses said,
‘If a man dies, having no children, his brother shall marry his wife, and raise up seed for his brother.’
Now there were with us seven brothers. The first married and died, and having no seed left his wife to his brother.

In like manner the second also, and the third, to the seventh.

After them all, the woman died.

In the resurrection therefore, whose wife will she be of the seven?
For they all had her.

But Jesus answered them,
“You are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God.

For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage,
but are like God’s angels in heaven.

But concerning the resurrection of the dead,
haven’t you read that which was spoken to you by God, saying,

‘I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?’ [Ex 3:6]
God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.”
When the multitudes heard it, they were astonished at his teaching.

  Questions on Marriage and the Resurrection:   Mark 12:18-27 (10vs)

There came to him Sadducees, who say that there is no resurrection.
They asked him, saying,

“Teacher, Moses wrote to us,
‘If a man’s brother dies, and leaves a wife behind him,
and leaves no children, that his brother should take his wife,
and raise up offspring for his brother.’

There were seven brothers. The first took a wife, and dying left no offspring.
The second took her, and died, leaving no children behind him. The third likewise;
and the seven took her and left no children. Last of all the woman also died.

In the resurrection, when they rise, whose wife will she be of them?
For the seven had her as a wife.

Jesus answered them,
“Isn’t this because you are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God?

For when they will rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven.

But about the dead, that they are raised;
haven’t you read in the book of Moses, about the bush, how God spoke to him, saying,

‘I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’? [Ex 3:6]

He is not the God of the dead, but of the living.
You are therefore badly mistaken.”

  Questions on Marriage and the Resurrection:   Luke 20:27-40 (14vs)

Some of the Sadducees came to him, those who deny that there is a resurrection.

They asked him,

“Teacher, Moses wrote to us that if a man’s brother dies having a wife, and he is childless,
his brother should take the wife,
and raise up children for his brother.

There were therefore seven brothers.
The first took a wife, and died childless.
The second took her as wife, and he died childless.
The third took her, and likewise the seven all left no children, and died.

Afterward the woman also died.

Therefore in the resurrection whose wife of them will she be?
For the seven had her as a wife.

Jesus said to them,
“The children of this age marry, and are given in marriage.
But those who are considered worthy to attain to that age
and the resurrection from the dead,
neither marry, nor are given in marriage.
For they can’t die any more,
for they are like the angels,
and are children of God, being children of the resurrection.

But that the dead are raised,
even Moses showed at the bush, when he called the Lord

‘The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ [Ex 3:6]
Now he is not the God of the dead, but of the living, for all are alive to him.”
Some of the scribes answered,
“Teacher, you speak well.”
They didn’t dare to ask him any more questions.


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Map of Palestine Israel during Jesus' life


Local HISTORY charts: Roman Empire and the Messiah in Israel
DATE: ca 51 BC - Quirinius, became governor of Syria
DATE: 44 BC - Julius Caesar was murdered; last Caesar of the Roman Republic. Civil war followed.

Harmony reading: 1 (Sept 30)

DATE: ca 37 (or 40) BC - Herod the Great began his reign in Judea, killing off the Hasmonean Dynasty and the Maccabees of the Kingdom of Israel (ca 140-37 BC). Map of the Kingdom of Herod.
DATE: ca 30 BC - Cleopatra of Egypt died
DATE: ca 30-27 BC - Caesar Augustus began ruling as first Emperor of the Roman Empire

Harmony reading: 2 (Oct 1)

DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, ordered a census of the entire empire; Luke 2:1.
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Quirinius, governor of Syria ordered a census in Judea (Luke 2:2)
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Jesus was born in Bethlehem
DATE: ca   4 BC - in Judea Herod the Great died. He had rebuilt the 2nd Temple in Jerusalem, calling it Herod's Temple.
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod "Archelaus" replaced his father Herod as king of Judea until banished in 6 AD. (See Iudaea Province). (Matt 2:13-23)
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod Antipas replaced his father Herod as the tetrarch of Roman province of Galilee and Perea
DATE: ca 4 BC - Philip the Tetrarch replaced his father Herod as Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis 4 BC – 34 AD
DATE: ca 6 BC - Herod "Archelaus" was exiled to Gaul and Augustus made Samaria, Judea, and Idumea a Roman province Iudaea.
DATE: ca 6 AD - Annas High Priest officially from 6-15 AD, but who lived until assasinated in 66 AD
DATE: ca 14 AD - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, died.

Harmony reading: 3 (Oct 2)

DATE: ca 14 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire, began his reign
DATE: ca 18 AD - Caiaphas High Priest from 18-36 AD (John 18:13 - son-in-law of Annas)
DATE: ca 21 AD - Quirinius, governor of Syria died
DATE: ca 26 AD - Pontius Pilate became the fifth Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire is mentioned in his 15th year (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 29 AD - Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - John the Baptist began his ministry (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Jesus began his ministry around the age of 30, soon after John

Harmony reading: later (Oct ?)

DATE: ca ? AD - around the age of 33, Jesus was crucified after being tried by Pontius Pilate and High Priest Annas
DATE: ca 34 AD - Philip the Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis died
DATE: ca 36 AD - Pontius Pilate was exiled to Gaul, perhaps by the cruel and insane Caligula who ruled Rome from 37–41 AD
DATE: ca 37 AD - Tiberius, Emperor of the Roman Empire, died and was followed by Caligula (AD 37–41) who claimed divinity
DATE: ca 39 AD - Tetrarch Herod Antipas was exiled from Galilee and Perea by his nephew Agrippa I who took over Galilee and Perea

Next harmony chart

Persia and Judah - Persia (Persian Empire) aka Achaemenid Empire c 550-330 BC; with maps; included what had been Babylon, 539 BC

more before:
DATE: ca 430-420 BC - Some think late in the reign of Artaxerxes I Longimanus or early in the reign of Darius II (ca 423-404 BC), Malachi wrote warnings and promises from the LORD.

Persian Empire kings - links to Wikipedia for information on kings of the Persian Empire from 559-330 BC

Empires governing the Israel in the Middle East - from 746 BC to current; lists of empires

Assyria - Second Empire of ASSYRIA with maps; 746-609 BC

Babylonia - NEO BABYLONIAN Empire with maps; ca. 627-539 BC

Egypt & Judah - Egypt neighbored Israel to the southwest

Final prophets and kings of Judah

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