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October 28   - Day 301 - New Testament reading day 29 of 99
* Gospel Study Indexes: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* Introduction to the books of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* Books to buy on Gospel, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Amazon.com
* Dictionary:     Jerusalem     Resurrection     Authenticating signs
* Map of Galilee
Commentary:
The Pharisees' and Sadducees' Best Shots
Mt 21:18-23:26

Local History: (The Roman Empire and Israel)

Scriptures: (94vs)
* Matthew 22:1-14,34-46 (27vs)   23:1-39 (39vs)   * Mark 12:28-44 (17vs)   * Luke 20:41-47 (7vs)   21:1-4 (4vs)  


  Jerusalem: Jesus Continued Teaching During That Passover:
  Jesus' parable: the Marriage of the King's Son
    Banquet invitation for an inconvenient time; Many called
  Matthew 22:1-14 (14vs)

Jesus answered and spoke again in parables to them, saying,

"The Kingdom of Heaven is like a certain king, who made a marriage feast for his son,
and sent out his servants to call those who were invited to the marriage feast, but they would not come.

Again he sent out other servants, saying,

'Tell those who are invited,
"Behold, I have made ready my dinner. My cattle and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready. Come to the marriage feast!"'
But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his own farm, another to his merchandise, and the rest grabbed his servants, and treated them shamefully, and killed them.

When the king heard that, he was angry, and sent his armies, destroyed those murderers, and burned their city.

Then he said to his servants,

'The wedding is ready, but those who were invited weren’t worthy.
Go therefore to the intersections of the highways,
and as many as you may find,
invite to the marriage feast.'
Those servants went out into the highways, and gathered together as many as they found, both bad and good. The wedding was filled with guests.

But when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man who didn’t have on wedding clothing, and he said to him,

'Friend, how did you come in here not wearing wedding clothing?' [Isa 61:10]
He was speechless.

Then the king said to the servants,

'Bind him hand and foot, take him away, and throw him into the outer darkness; there is where the weeping and grinding of teeth will be. '
For many are called, but few chosen."


  Experts continued trying to trip Jesus up:
  What is the Greatest Commandment?   Matthew 22:34-40 (7vs)

But the Pharisees, when they heard that he had silenced the Sadducees, gathered themselves together.

One of them, a lawyer, asked him a question, testing him.

Teacher, which is the greatest commandment in the law?

Jesus said to him,

“‘You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind.’ [Deut 6:5]
This is the first and great commandment.

A second likewise is this,

‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ [Lev 19:18]

The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments.”

  What is the Greatest Commandment?   Mark 12:28-34 (6vs)

One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together.
Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him,

Which commandment is the greatest of all?

Jesus answered,

“The greatest is,
‘Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one:
you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart,
and with all your soul,
and with all your mind,
and with all your strength.’ [Deut 6:5]
This is the first commandment.

The second is like this,

‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ [Lev 19:18]
There is no other commandment greater than these.”

The scribe said to him,

“Truly, teacher, you have said well
that he is one, and there is none other but he,
and to love him with all the heart,
and with all the understanding,
with all the soul,
and with all the strength,
and to love his neighbor as himself,
is more important than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices.”

When Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him,

“You are not far from the Kingdom of God.”
No one dared ask him any question after that.


  Jesus asked the experts a basic question about Messiah:
  Whose son is the Messiah?   Matthew 22:41-46 (6vs)

Now while the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them a question, saying,

"What do you think of the Christ? Whose son is he?"
They said to him,
"Of David."
He said to them,
"How then does David in the Spirit call him Lord, saying,
'The Lord said to my Lord,
sit on my right hand,
until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet?' [* Psa 110:1]
If then David calls him Lord, how is he his son?”
No one was able to answer him a word, neither did any man dare ask him any more questions from that day forth.

  Whose son is the Messiah?   Mark 12:35-37 (3vs)

Jesus responded, as he taught in the temple,

"How is it that the scribes say that the Christ is the son of David?
For David himself said in the Holy Spirit,
'The Lord said to my Lord,
"Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet."' [* Psa 110:1]
Therefore David himself calls him Lord, so how can he be his son?"
The common people heard him gladly.

  Whose son is the Messiah?   Luke 20:41-44 (4vs)

He said to them,

"Why do they say that the Christ is David’s son?
David himself says in the book of Psalms,
'The Lord said to my Lord,
"Sit at my right hand,
until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet."' [* Psa 110:1]
David therefore calls him Lord, so how is he his son?"


  Do what Jewish teachers teach, not what they do:
  Live by their teaching, not their example:   Matthew 23:1-12 (12vs)

Then Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to his disciples, saying,

"The scribes and the Pharisees sat on Moses’ seat.

All things therefore whatever they tell you to observe, observe and do,
but don’t do their works; for they say, and don’t do.

For they bind heavy burdens that are grievous to be borne, and lay them on men’s shoulders; but they themselves will not lift a finger to help them.

But all their works they do to be seen by men.
They make their phylacteries broad, enlarge the fringes of their garments,
and love the place of honor at feasts, the best seats in the synagogues,
the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called ‘Rabbi, Rabbi’ by men.

But don’t you be called ‘Rabbi,’ for one is your teacher, the Christ, and all of you are brothers.

Call no man on the earth your father, for one is your Father, he who is in heaven.

Neither be called masters, for one is your master, the Christ.

But he who is greatest among you will be your servant.

Whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted."

  Live by their teaching, not their example:   Mark 12:38-40 (3vs)

In his teaching he said to them,

"Beware of the scribes, who like to walk in long robes,
and to get greetings in the marketplaces,
and the best seats in the synagogues, and the best places at feasts:
those who devour widows’ houses, and for a pretense make long prayers.
These will receive greater condemnation."

  Live by their teaching, not their example:   Luke 20:45-47 (3vs)

In the hearing of all the people, he said to his disciples,

"Beware of the scribes, who like to walk in long robes,
and love greetings in the marketplaces,
the best seats in the synagogues,
and the best places at feasts;
who devour widows’ houses,
and for a pretense make long prayers:
these will receive greater condemnation."


  Who gives the most?
  The widow's offering:   Mark 12:41-44 (4vs)

Jesus sat down opposite the treasury, and saw how the multitude cast money into the treasury.

Many who were rich cast in much.

A poor widow came, and she cast in two small brass coins, which equal a quadrans coin.

He called his disciples to himself, and said to them,

"Most certainly I tell you, this poor widow gave more than all those who are giving into the treasury,
for they all gave out of their abundance,
but she, out of her poverty, gave all that she had to live on."

  The widow's offering:   Luke 21:1-4 (4vs)

He looked up, and saw the rich people who were putting their gifts into the treasury.

He saw a certain poor widow casting in two small brass coins.

He said,

"Truly I tell you, this poor widow put in more than all of them,
for all these put in gifts for God from their abundance,
but she, out of her poverty,
put in all that she had to live on."


  Traditional woes:
  The woes of the hypocritical - does this apply?   Matthew 23:13-33 (21vs)

"Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!
For you devour widows’ houses,
and as a pretense you make long prayers.
Therefore you will receive greater condemnation.

But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!

Because you shut up the Kingdom of Heaven against men;
for you don’t enter in yourselves, neither do you allow those who are entering in to enter.

Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!

For you travel around by sea and land to make one proselyte;
and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much of a son of Gehenna as yourselves.

Woe to you, you blind guides, who say,

'Whoever swears by the temple, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.'
You blind fools!
For which is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifies the gold?
'Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing;
but whoever swears by the gift that is on it, he is obligated?'
You blind fools!
For which is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifies the gift?
He therefore who swears by the altar, swears by it, and by everything on it.
He who swears by the temple, swears by it, and by him who was living in it.
He who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God, and by him who sits on it.

Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!

For you tithe mint, dill, and cumin,
and have left undone the weightier matters of the law: justice, mercy, and faith.
But you ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone.
You blind guides, who strain out a gnat, and swallow a camel!

Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!

For you clean the outside of the cup and of the platter,
but within they are full of extortion and unrighteousness.
You blind Pharisee, first clean the inside of the cup and of the platter, that its outside may become clean also.

Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!

For you are like whitened tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but inwardly are full of dead men’s bones, and of all uncleanness.
Even so you also outwardly appear righteous to men, but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and iniquity.

Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!

For you build the tombs of the prophets, and decorate the tombs of the righteous, and say,
'If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we wouldn’t have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.'
Therefore you testify to yourselves that you are children of those who killed the prophets.

Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers.
You serpents, you offspring of vipers, how will you escape the judgment of Gehenna?"


  Historic rejection of those God sends: (Also see The Wicked Husbandman Parable)
  God sent prophets to Jews and Jerusalem   Matthew 23:34-39 (6vs)
"Therefore, behold, I send to you prophets, wise men, and scribes.
Some of them you will kill and crucify;
and some of them you will scourge in your synagogues,
and persecute from city to city;
that on you may come all the righteous blood shed on the earth,
from the blood of righteous Abel
to the blood of Zachariah son of Barachiah, whom you killed between the sanctuary and the altar.

Most certainly I tell you, all these things will come upon this generation.

Jerusalem, Jerusalem, who kills the prophets, and stones those who are sent to her!
How often I would have gathered your children together, even as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings,
and you would not!

Behold, your house is left to you desolate.
For I tell you, you will not see me from now on, until you say,

'Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!'" [Psa 118:26]


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Map of Palestine Israel during Jesus' life


Local HISTORY charts: Roman Empire and the Messiah in Israel
DATE: ca 51 BC - Quirinius, became governor of Syria
DATE: 44 BC - Julius Caesar was murdered; last Caesar of the Roman Republic. Civil war followed.

Harmony reading: 1 (Sept 30)

DATE: ca 37 (or 40) BC - Herod the Great began his reign in Judea, killing off the Hasmonean Dynasty and the Maccabees of the Kingdom of Israel (ca 140-37 BC). Map of the Kingdom of Herod.
DATE: ca 30 BC - Cleopatra of Egypt died
DATE: ca 30-27 BC - Caesar Augustus began ruling as first Emperor of the Roman Empire

Harmony reading: 2 (Oct 1)

DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, ordered a census of the entire empire; Luke 2:1.
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Quirinius, governor of Syria ordered a census in Judea (Luke 2:2)
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Jesus was born in Bethlehem
DATE: ca   4 BC - in Judea Herod the Great died. He had rebuilt the 2nd Temple in Jerusalem, calling it Herod's Temple.
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod "Archelaus" replaced his father Herod as king of Judea until banished in 6 AD. (See Iudaea Province). (Matt 2:13-23)
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod Antipas replaced his father Herod as the tetrarch of Roman province of Galilee and Perea
DATE: ca 4 BC - Philip the Tetrarch replaced his father Herod as Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis 4 BC – 34 AD
DATE: ca 6 BC - Herod "Archelaus" was exiled to Gaul and Augustus made Samaria, Judea, and Idumea a Roman province Iudaea.
DATE: ca 6 AD - Annas High Priest officially from 6-15 AD, but who lived until assasinated in 66 AD
DATE: ca 14 AD - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, died.

Harmony reading: 3 (Oct 2)

DATE: ca 14 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire, began his reign
DATE: ca 18 AD - Caiaphas High Priest from 18-36 AD (John 18:13 - son-in-law of Annas)
DATE: ca 21 AD - Quirinius, governor of Syria died
DATE: ca 26 AD - Pontius Pilate became the fifth Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire is mentioned in his 15th year (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 29 AD - Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - John the Baptist began his ministry (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Jesus began his ministry around the age of 30, soon after John

Harmony reading: later (Oct ?)

DATE: ca ? AD - around the age of 33, Jesus was crucified after being tried by Pontius Pilate and High Priest Annas
DATE: ca 34 AD - Philip the Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis died
DATE: ca 36 AD - Pontius Pilate was exiled to Gaul, perhaps by the cruel and insane Caligula who ruled Rome from 37–41 AD
DATE: ca 37 AD - Tiberius, Emperor of the Roman Empire, died and was followed by Caligula (AD 37–41) who claimed divinity
DATE: ca 39 AD - Tetrarch Herod Antipas was exiled from Galilee and Perea by his nephew Agrippa I who took over Galilee and Perea

Next harmony chart

Persia and Judah - Persia (Persian Empire) aka Achaemenid Empire c 550-330 BC; with maps; included what had been Babylon, 539 BC

more before:
DATE: ca 430-420 BC - Some think late in the reign of Artaxerxes I Longimanus or early in the reign of Darius II (ca 423-404 BC), Malachi wrote warnings and promises from the LORD.

Persian Empire kings - links to Wikipedia for information on kings of the Persian Empire from 559-330 BC

Empires governing the Israel in the Middle East - from 746 BC to current; lists of empires

Assyria - Second Empire of ASSYRIA with maps; 746-609 BC

Babylonia - NEO BABYLONIAN Empire with maps; ca. 627-539 BC

Egypt & Judah - Egypt neighbored Israel to the southwest

Final prophets and kings of Judah

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