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November 3   - Day 307 - New Testament reading day 35 of 99
* Study Indexes: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* Introduction to the books of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* BOOKS on Gospel, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Amazon.com
* BIBLE DICTIONARY - as Crucify | Messiah
* Scriptural requirements of Messiah, MessiahRevealed.org
* MAPS * OUTLINE BIBLE * TIMELINES * Map of Galilee
Commentary:
Final Words John 18-19

Local History: (The Roman Empire and Israel)

Scriptures: (91vs)
* Matthew 26:56-75 (20vs)   27:1-2 (2vs)   * Mark 14:51-72 (22vs)   15:1 (1vs)   * Luke 22:54-71 (18vs)   23:1 (1vs)   * John 18:12-38 (27vs)  


  As foretold in scriptures, Jesus' disciples fled:
  Jesus' disciples fled:   Matthew 26:56 (1vs)
"But all this has happened, that the Scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled."
Then all the disciples left him, and fled.

  Jesus' disciples fled:   Mark 14:51-52 (2vs)

A certain young man followed him, having a linen cloth thrown around himself,
over his naked body. The young men grabbed him,
but he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked.


  Arrested, Jesus was taken to the chief priests:
DATE: ca 6 AD - Annas High Priest officially from 6-15 AD, but who lived until assasinated in 66 AD
DATE: ca 18 AD - Caiaphas High Priest from 18-36 AD (John 18:13 - son-in-law of Annas)

  Jesus arrested:   Matthew 26:57 (1vs)

Those who had taken Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were gathered together.

  Jesus arrested:   Mark 14:53 (1vs)

They led Jesus away to the high priest. All the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes came together with him.

  Jesus arrested:   John 18:12-14 (3vs)

So the detachment, the commanding officer, and the officers of the Jews,
seized Jesus and bound him, and led him to Annas first,
for he was father-in-law to Caiaphas,
who was high priest that year.

Now it was Caiaphas who advised the Jews that it was expedient
that one man should perish for the people.

  Jesus arrested; Peter followed:   Luke 22:54 (1vs)

They seized him, and led him away, and brought him into the high priest’s house. But Peter followed from a distance.


  Peter (and John) followed the crowd into the court of the high priest:
  Peter followed:   Matthew 26:58 (1vs)

But Peter followed him from a distance, to the court of the high priest, and entered in and sat with the officers, to see the end.

  Peter followed:   Mark 14:54 (1vs)

Peter had followed him from a distance, until he came into the court of the high priest.
He was sitting with the officers, and warming himself in the light of the fire.

  Peter and John followed Jesus:   John 18:15-16 (2vs)

Simon Peter followed Jesus, as did another disciple.
Now that disciple was known to the high priest,
and entered in with Jesus into the court of the high priest;
but Peter was standing at the door outside.

So the other disciple, who was known to the high priest,
went out and spoke to her who kept the door, and brought in Peter.


  As foretold, Peter denied knowing Jesus:
  Peter disowned Jesus 3 times:   Matthew 26:69-75 (7vs)

Now Peter was sitting outside in the court, and a maid came to him, saying,

“You were also with Jesus, the Galilean!”
But he denied it before them all, saying,
“I don’t know what you are talking about.”
When he had gone out onto the porch, someone else saw him, and said to those who were there,
“This man also was with Jesus of Nazareth.”
Again he denied it with an oath,
“I don’t know the man.”
After a little while those who stood by came and said to Peter,
“Surely you are also one of them, for your speech makes you known.”

Then he began to curse and to swear,

“I don’t know the man!”
Immediately the rooster crowed.

Peter remembered the word which Jesus had said to him,

“Before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times.”
He went out and wept bitterly.

  Peter disowned Jesus 3 times:   Mark 14:66-72 (7vs)

As Peter was in the courtyard below, one of the maids of the high priest came,
and seeing Peter warming himself, she looked at him, and said,

“You were also with the Nazarene, Jesus!”
But he denied it, saying,
“I neither know, nor understand what you are saying.”
He went out on the porch, and the rooster crowed.

The maid saw him, and began again to tell those who stood by,

“This is one of them.”
But he again denied it.
After a little while again those who stood by said to Peter,
“You truly are one of them, for you are a Galilean, and your speech shows it.”
But he began to curse, and to swear,
“I don’t know this man of whom you speak!”
The rooster crowed the second time.
Peter remembered the word, how that Jesus said to him,
“Before the rooster crows twice, you will deny me three times.”
When he thought about that, he wept.

  Peter disowned Jesus:   Luke 22:55-62 (8vs)

When they had kindled a fire in the middle of the courtyard, and had sat down together, Peter sat among them.

A certain servant girl saw him as he sat in the light, and looking intently at him, said,

"This man also was with him."
He denied Jesus, saying,
"Woman, I don’t know him."
After a little while someone else saw him, and said,
"You also are one of them!"
But Peter answered,
"Man, I am not!"
After about one hour passed, another confidently affirmed, saying,
"Truly this man also was with him, for he is a Galilean!"
But Peter said,
"Man, I don’t know what you are talking about!"
Immediately, while he was still speaking, a rooster crowed.

The Lord turned, and looked at Peter.
Then Peter remembered the Lord’s word, how he said to him,

"Before the rooster crows you will deny me three times."
He went out, and wept bitterly.

  Peter disowned Jesus:   John 18:17-18 (2vs)

Then the maid who kept the door said to Peter,

"Are you also one of this man’s disciples?"
He said,
"I am not."
Now the servants and the officers were standing there, having made a fire of coals,
for it was cold. They were warming themselves.
Peter was with them, standing and warming himself.

  Peter disowned Jesus:   John 18:25-27 (3vs)

Now Simon Peter was standing and warming himself.

They said therefore to him,

"You aren’t also one of his disciples, are you?"
He denied it, and said,
"I am not."
One of the servants of the high priest, being a relative of him whose ear Peter had cut off, said,
"Didn’t I see you in the garden with him?"
Peter therefore denied it again, and immediately the rooster crowed.


  Inside, the priests questioned witnesses to charge Jesus of guilt:
  Searching for testimony worthy of death:   Matthew 26:59-62 (4vs)

Now the chief priests, the elders, and the whole council sought
false testimony against Jesus, that they might put him to death;
and they found none. Even though many false witnesses came forward,
they found none.
But at last two false witnesses came forward, and said,

"This man said,
'I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days.' "
The high priest stood up, and said to him,
"Have you no answer?
What is this that these testify against you?"

  Testimony worthy of death penalty:   Mark 14:55-60 (6vs)

Now the chief priests and the whole council sought witnesses against Jesus to put him to death, and found none.

For many gave false testimony against him, and their testimony didn’t agree with each other.

Some stood up, and gave false testimony against him, saying,

"We heard him say,
'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands,
and in three days I will build another made without hands.'"
Even so, their testimony did not agree.

The high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus,

"Have you no answer?
What is it which these testify against you?"

  Jesus taken to Annas and Caiaphas:   John 18:19-24 (6vs)

The high priest therefore asked Jesus about his disciples, and about his teaching.

Jesus answered him,

"I spoke openly to the world.
I always taught in synagogues, and in the temple,
where the Jews always meet. I said nothing in secret.

Why do you ask me? Ask those who have heard me
what I said to them. Behold, these know the things which I said."

When he had said this, one of the officers standing by slapped Jesus with his hand, saying,
"Do you answer the high priest like that?"
Jesus answered him,
"If I have spoken evil, testify of the evil;
but if well, why do you beat me?"
Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas, the high priest.


  Charge - He claims to be the promised Messiah, Christ:
  Charged with being Messiah:   Matthew 26:63-66 (4vs)

But Jesus held his peace. The high priest answered him,

"I adjure you by the living God, that you tell us whether you are the Christ, the Son of God."
Jesus said to him,
"You have said it. Nevertheless, I tell you,
after this you will see the Son of Man
sitting at the right hand of Power,
and coming on the clouds of the sky."
Then the high priest tore his clothing, saying,
"He has spoken blasphemy!
Why do we need any more witnesses?
Behold, now you have heard his blasphemy.
What do you think?"
They answered,
"He is worthy of death!"

  Charge: claiming to be Messiah:   Mark 14:61-64 (4vs)

But he stayed quiet, and answered nothing.

Again the high priest asked him,

"Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?"
Jesus said,
"I am.
You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power,
and coming with the clouds of the sky."
The high priest tore his clothes, and said,
"What further need have we of witnesses?
You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?"
They all condemned him to be worthy of death.

  Charged with being Messiah:   Luke 22:66-71 (6vs)

As soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together,
both chief priests and scribes,
and they led him away into their council, saying,

"If you are the Christ, tell us."
But he said to them,
"If I tell you, you won’t believe,
and if I ask, you will in no way answer me or let me go.

From now on, the Son of Man will be seated
at the right hand of the power of God."

They all said,

"Are you then the Son of God?"
He said to them,
"You say it, because I am."
They said,
"Why do we need any more witness?
For we ourselves have heard from his own mouth!"


  Guards mocked Jesus without fear:
  treating him as false prophet Micaiah in 2 Chronicles 18:23
  Sanhedrin guards mocked Jesus:   Matthew 26:67-68 (2vs)

Then they spit in his face and beat him with their fists, and some slapped him, saying,

"Prophesy to us, you Christ!
Who hit you?"

  Sanhedrin guards mocked Jesus:   Mark 14:65 (1vs)

Some began to spit on him, and to cover his face,
and to beat him with fists, and to tell him,

"Prophesy!"
The officers struck him with the palms of their hands.

  Sanhedrin guards neither feared nor respected Jesus:   Luke 22:63-65 (3vs)

The men who held Jesus mocked him and beat him.

Having blindfolded him, they struck him on the face and asked him,

"Prophesy!
Who is the one who struck you?"
They spoke many other things against him, insulting him.


  Jesus was bound up and taken to governor Pontius Pilate:
  From the Sanhedrin to Governor Pilate:   Matthew 27:1-2 (2vs)

Now when morning had come, all the chief priests and the elders of the people
took counsel against Jesus to put him to death:
and they bound him, and led him away, and delivered him up to Pontius Pilate, the governor.

  From chief priest to governor Pilate:   Mark 15:1 (1vs)

Immediately in the morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes,
and the whole council, held a consultation,
and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him up to Pilate.

  From Sanhedrin to the governor:   Luke 23:1 (1vs)

The whole company of them rose up and brought him before Pilate.

  Bound and taken to Pilate:   John 18:28-38 (11vs)

They led Jesus therefore from Caiaphas into the Praetorium.
It was early, and they themselves didn’t enter into the Praetorium,
that they might not be defiled, but might eat the Passover.


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Map of Palestine Israel during Jesus' life


Local HISTORY charts: Roman Empire and the Messiah in Israel
DATE: ca 51 BC - Quirinius, became governor of Syria
DATE: 44 BC - Julius Caesar was murdered; last Caesar of the Roman Republic. Civil war followed.

Harmony reading: 1 (Sept 30)

DATE: ca 37 (or 40) BC - Herod the Great began his reign in Judea, killing off the Hasmonean Dynasty and the Maccabees of the Kingdom of Israel (ca 140-37 BC). Map of the Kingdom of Herod.
DATE: ca 30 BC - Cleopatra of Egypt died
DATE: ca 30-27 BC - Caesar Augustus began ruling as first Emperor of the Roman Empire

Harmony reading: 2 (Oct 1)

DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, ordered a census of the entire empire; Luke 2:1.
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Quirinius, governor of Syria ordered a census in Judea (Luke 2:2)
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Jesus was born in Bethlehem
DATE: ca   4 BC - in Judea Herod the Great died. He had rebuilt the 2nd Temple in Jerusalem, calling it Herod's Temple.
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod "Archelaus" replaced his father Herod as king of Judea until banished in 6 AD. (See Iudaea Province). (Matt 2:13-23)
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod Antipas replaced his father Herod as the tetrarch of Roman province of Galilee and Perea
DATE: ca 4 BC - Philip the Tetrarch replaced his father Herod as Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis 4 BC – 34 AD
DATE: ca 6 BC - Herod "Archelaus" was exiled to Gaul and Augustus made Samaria, Judea, and Idumea a Roman province Iudaea.
DATE: ca 6 AD - Annas High Priest officially from 6-15 AD, but who lived until assasinated in 66 AD
DATE: ca 14 AD - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, died.

Harmony reading: 3 (Oct 2)

DATE: ca 14 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire, began his reign
DATE: ca 18 AD - Caiaphas High Priest from 18-36 AD (John 18:13 - son-in-law of Annas)
DATE: ca 21 AD - Quirinius, governor of Syria died
DATE: ca 26 AD - Pontius Pilate became the fifth Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire is mentioned in his 15th year (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 29 AD - Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - John the Baptist began his ministry (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Jesus began his ministry around the age of 30, soon after John

Harmony reading: later (Oct ?)

DATE: ca ? AD - around the age of 33, Jesus was crucified after being tried by Pontius Pilate and High Priest Annas
DATE: ca 34 AD - Philip the Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis died
DATE: ca 36 AD - Pontius Pilate was exiled to Gaul, perhaps by the cruel and insane Caligula who ruled Rome from 37–41 AD
DATE: ca 37 AD - Tiberius, Emperor of the Roman Empire, died and was followed by Caligula (AD 37–41) who claimed divinity
DATE: ca 39 AD - Tetrarch Herod Antipas was exiled from Galilee and Perea by his nephew Agrippa I who took over Galilee and Perea

Next harmony chart

Persia and Judah - Persia (Persian Empire) aka Achaemenid Empire c 550-330 BC; with maps; included what had been Babylon, 539 BC

more before:
DATE: ca 430-420 BC - Some think late in the reign of Artaxerxes I Longimanus or early in the reign of Darius II (ca 423-404 BC), Malachi wrote warnings and promises from the LORD.

Persian Empire kings - links to Wikipedia for information on kings of the Persian Empire from 559-330 BC

Empires governing the Israel in the Middle East - from 746 BC to current; lists of empires

Assyria - Second Empire of ASSYRIA with maps; 746-609 BC

Babylonia - NEO BABYLONIAN Empire with maps; ca. 627-539 BC

Egypt & Judah - Egypt neighbored Israel to the southwest

Final prophets and kings of Judah

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