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November 5   - Day 309 - New Testament reading day 37 of 99
* Study Indexes: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* Introduction to the books of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* BOOKS on Gospel, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Amazon.com
* BIBLE DICTIONARY - as Crucify | Messiah
* Scriptural requirements of Messiah, MessiahRevealed.org
* MAPS * OUTLINE BIBLE * TIMELINES * Map of Galilee
Commentary:
The Plan Unfolds: Forsaken and Resurrected Mk 15-16

Local History: (The Roman Empire and Israel)
  Rulers of Rome and Israel when Jesus was crucified

Scriptures: (97vs)
* Matthew 27:27-53, 55-56 (29vs)   * Mark 15:16-38,40-41 (25vs)   * Luke 23:26-46,49 (22vs)   * John 19:17-37 (21vs)  


  Soldiers continued to mock Jesus:
  Mocking soldiers:   Matthew 27:27-31 (5vs)

Then the governorís soldiers took Jesus into the Praetorium, and gathered the whole garrison together against him.

They stripped him, and put a scarlet robe on him.

They braided a crown of thorns and put it on his head, and a reed in his right hand; and they kneeled down before him, and mocked him, saying,

"Hail, King of the Jews!"
They spat on him, and took the reed and struck him on the head.

When they had mocked him, they took the robe off of him, and put his clothes on him, and led him away to crucify him.

  Mocking soldiers:   Mark 15:16-20 (5vs)

The soldiers led him away within the court, which is the Praetorium; and they called together the whole cohort.

They clothed him with purple, and weaving a crown of thorns, they put it on him.

They began to salute him,

"Hail, King of the Jews!"
They struck his head with a reed,
and spat on him,
and bowing their knees, did homage to him.

When they had mocked him, they took the purple off of him, and put his own garments on him.

They led him out to crucify him.


  Crucifixion - death in disrespect:
  Mocking soldiers crucified Jesus:   Matthew 27:32-44 (13vs)

As they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name, and they compelled him to go with them, that he might carry his cross.

They came to a place called "Golgotha," that is to say, "The place of a skull."

They gave him sour wine to drink mixed with gall.
When he had tasted it, he would not drink.

When they had crucified him, they divided his clothing among them,
casting lots, * Psalm 22:18
and they sat and watched him there.

They set up over his head the accusation against him written,

"THIS IS JESUS, THE KING OF THE JEWS."
Then there were two robbers crucified with him, one on his right hand and one on the left.

Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads,
and saying,

"You who destroy the temple,
and build it in three days,
save yourself!
If you are the Son of God,
come down from the cross!"
Likewise the chief priests also mocking,
with the scribes, the Pharisees, and the elders, said,
"He saved others, but he canít save himself.
If he is the King of Israel,
let him come down from the cross now,
and we will believe in him.

He trusts in God.
Let God deliver him now, if he wants him;
* Psalm 22:8
for he said,

'I am the Son of God.'"
The robbers also who were crucified with him cast on him the same reproach.

  Mocking soldiers crucified Jesus:   Mark 15:21-32 (12vs)

They compelled one passing by, coming from the country,
Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus,
to go with them, that he might bear his cross.

They brought him to the place called Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, "The place of a skull."

They offered him wine mixed with myrrh to drink, but he didnít take it.

Crucifying him, they parted his garments among them,
casting lots on them, what each should take. [Psa 22:18]

It was the third hour, and they crucified him.

The superscription of his accusation was written over him,

"THE KING OF THE JEWS."
With him they crucified two robbers; one on his right hand, and one on his left.

The Scripture was fulfilled, which says,

"He was numbered with transgressors." [Isa 53:12, Psa 51:13]
Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads, and saying,
"Ha! You who destroy the temple,
and build it in three days,
save yourself, and come down from the cross!"
Likewise, also the chief priests mocking among themselves with the scribes said,
"He saved others.
He canít save himself.

Let the Christ, the King of Israel,
now come down from the cross,
that we may see and believe him."

Those who were crucified with him insulted him.

  Mocking soldiers crucified Jesus:   Luke 23:26-34 (9vs)

When they led him away, they grabbed one Simon of Cyrene, coming from the country, and laid on him the cross, to carry it after Jesus.

A great multitude of the people followed him, including women who also mourned and lamented him.

But Jesus, turning to them, said,

"Daughters of Jerusalem, donít weep for me,
but weep for yourselves and for your children.

For behold, the days are coming in which they will say,

'Blessed are the barren,
the wombs that never bore,
and the breasts that never nursed.'
Then they will begin to tell the mountains,
'Fall on us!'
and tell the hills,
'Cover us.' [Hos 10:8]
For if they do these things in the green tree, what will be done in the dry?"
There were also others, two criminals, led with him to be put to death.

When they came to the place that is called The Skull,
they crucified him there with the criminals,
one on the right and the other on the left. [Isa 53:12]

Jesus said,

"Father, forgive them, for they donít know what they are doing."
Dividing his garments among them, they cast lots. [Psa 22:18]


  Crucifixion - death in disrespect:
  Crucified at Golgotha, near Jerusalem   John 19:17-22 (6vs)

He went out, bearing his cross, to the place called ďThe Place of a Skull,Ē
which is called in Hebrew, ďGolgotha,Ē
where they crucified him, and with him two others,
on either side one, and Jesus in the middle.

Pilate wrote a title also, and put it on the cross. There was written,

"JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS."
Therefore many of the Jews read this title,
for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city;
and it was written in Hebrew, in Latin, and in Greek.

The chief priests of the Jews therefore said to Pilate,

"Donít write,
'The King of the Jews,'
but,
'he said, I am King of the Jews.'"
Pilate answered,
"What I have written, I have written."

  Can't Messiah save himself?   Luke 23:35-38 (4vs)

The people stood watching. The rulers with them also scoffed at him, saying,

"He saved others. Let him save himself, if this is the Christ of God, his chosen one!"
The soldiers also mocked him, coming to him and offering him vinegar, and saying,
"If you are the King of the Jews, save yourself!"
An inscription was also written over him in letters of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew:
"THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS."
  2 criminals, 2 opinions   Luke 23:39-43 (5vs)

One of the criminals who was hanged insulted him, saying,

"If you are the Christ, save yourself and us!"
But the other answered, and rebuking him said,
"Donít you even fear God, seeing you are under the same condemnation?

And we indeed justly,
for we receive the due reward for our deeds,
but this man has done nothing wrong."

He said to Jesus,
"Lord, remember me when you come into your Kingdom."
Jesus said to him,
"Assuredly I tell you, today you will be with me in Paradise."
  Crucifixion - Soldiers cast lots for his garment   John 19:23-24 (2vs)

Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments
and made four parts, to every soldier a part;
and also the coat.

Now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.

Then they said to one another,

"Letís not tear it, but cast lots for it to decide whose it will be,"
that the Scripture might be fulfilled, which says,
"They parted my garments among them.
For my cloak they cast lots." [Psa 22:18]
Therefore the soldiers did these things.


  Crucifixion - witnessed by several women and the apostle John:
  *Jesus' mother Mary
 *Mary's sister
 *Mary, wife of Clopas
 *Mary Magdalene
 *John, the loved disciple
  John 19:25-27 (3vs)

But there were standing by the cross of Jesus
    his mother,
    and his motherís sister,
    Mary the wife of Clopas,
    and Mary Magdalene.

Therefore when Jesus saw his mother, and the disciple whom he loved
standing there, he said to his mother,

"Woman, behold your son!"
Then he said to the disciple,
"Behold, your mother!"
From that hour, the disciple took her to his own home.


  Crucifixon - other women followers watched from a distance:
  Mary Magdalene,
  James' and Joses' mother Mary,
  and the mother (Salome) of James and John
  Matthew 27:55-56 (2vs)

Many women were there watching from afar, who had followed Jesus from Galilee, serving him. Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.

  Mary Magdalene,
  James' and Joses' mother Mary,
  and Salome
  Mark 15:40-41 (2vs)

There were also women watching from afar, among whom were both Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome; who, when he was in Galilee, followed him, and served him; and many other women who came up with him to Jerusalem.

  Acquaintances and women from Galilee   Luke 23:49 (1vs)

All his acquaintances, and the women who followed with him from Galilee, stood at a distance, watching these things.


  Crucifixion - Jesus' death:
  The death of Jesus   Matthew 27:45-50 (6vs)

Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land until the ninth hour.

About the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, * Isaiah 42:13 saying,

"Eli, Eli, lima sabachthani?"
That is,
"My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?" * Psalm 22:1
Some of them who stood there, when they heard it, said,
"This man is calling Elijah."
Immediately one of them ran, and took a sponge, and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him a drink. * Psalm 69:21

The rest said,

"Let him be. Letís see whether Elijah comes to save him."
Jesus cried again with a loud voice, and yielded up his spirit.
* Isaiah 42:13

  The death of Jesus   Mark 15:33-37 (5vs)

When the sixth hour had come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour.

At the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying,

"Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?Ē
which is, being interpreted,
"My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?Ē [Psa 22:1]
Some of those who stood by, when they heard it, said,
"Behold, he is calling Elijah."
One ran, and filling a sponge full of vinegar, put it on a reed, and gave it to him to drink, saying,
"Let him be.
Letís see whether Elijah comes to take him down."
Jesus cried out with a loud voice, and gave up the spirit.

  The death of Jesus   Luke 23:44-46 (3vs)

It was now about the sixth hour,
and darkness came over the whole land
until the ninth hour. The sun was darkened,
and the veil of the temple was torn in two.

Jesus, crying with a loud voice, said,

"Father, into your hands I commit my spirit!"
Having said this, he breathed his last.

  The death of Jesus   John 19:28-30 (3vs)

After this, Jesus, seeing that all things were now finished,
that the Scripture might be fulfilled, said,

"I am thirsty."
Now a vessel full of vinegar was set there;
so they put a sponge full of the vinegar on hyssop,
and held it at his mouth. [Psa 69:21]

When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said,

"It is finished."
He bowed his head, and gave up his spirit.


  Conclusion of the Day of Preparation:
  Jesus, already dead, was pierced in the side   John 19:31-37 (7vs)

Therefore the Jews, because it was the Preparation Day,
so that the bodies wouldnít remain on the cross
on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a special one),
asked of Pilate that their legs might be broken,
and that they might be taken away.

Therefore the soldiers came, and broke the legs
of the first, and of the other who was crucified with him;
but when they came to Jesus,
and saw that he was already dead,
they didnít break his legs.

However one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear,
and immediately blood and water came out. [Psa 22:16]

He who has seen has testified, and his testimony is true.
He knows that he tells the truth, that you may believe.

For these things happened, that the Scripture might be fulfilled,

"A bone of him will not be broken." [Psa 34:20; Exo 12:46; Num 9:12]
Again another Scripture says,
"They will look on him whom they pierced." [Zec 12:10; Rev 1:7]


  The Temple curtain tore, top to bottom:
  Temple curtain tore   Matthew 27:51 (1vs)

Behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from the top to the bottom.

The earth quaked and the rocks were split.

  Temple curtain tore   Mark 15:38 (1vs)

The veil of the temple was torn in two from the top to the bottom.


  When Jesus died, some people were resurrected.
 After Jesus rose, they left the tomb area and were seen

  This was another promised sign identifying Jesus as Messiah [Ezekiel 37:12-14]

  Tombs opened; many resurrected
  another promised sign of Messiah [Ezek 37:12-14]
  Matthew 27:52 (1vs)

The tombs were opened,
and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep
were raised; [Ezek 37:12-14]


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Map of Palestine Israel during Jesus' life


Local HISTORY charts: Roman Empire and the Messiah in Israel

Harmony reading 1: Messiah, the Christ - promised throughout scripture (Sept 30)

DATE: ca 51 BC - Quirinius, became governor of Syria
DATE: 44 BC - Julius Caesar was murdered; last Caesar of the Roman Republic. Civil war followed.
DATE: ca 37 (or 40) BC - Herod the Great began his reign in Judea, killing off the Hasmonean Dynasty and the Maccabees of the Kingdom of Israel (ca 140-37 BC). Map of the Kingdom of Herod.
DATE: ca 30 BC - Cleopatra of Egypt died
DATE: ca 30-27 BC - Caesar Augustus began ruling as first Emperor of the Roman Empire

Harmony reading 2: Jesus' background and ministry (Oct 1)

DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, ordered a census of the entire empire; Luke 2:1.
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Quirinius, governor of Syria ordered a census in Judea (Luke 2:2)
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Jesus was born in Bethlehem
DATE: ca   4 BC - in Judea Herod the Great died. He had rebuilt the 2nd Temple in Jerusalem, calling it Herod's Temple.
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod "Archelaus" replaced his father Herod as king of Judea until banished in 6 AD. (See Iudaea Province). (Matt 2:13-23)
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod Antipas replaced his father Herod as the tetrarch of Roman province of Galilee and Perea
DATE: ca 4 BC - Philip the Tetrarch replaced his father Herod as Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis 4 BC Ė 34 AD
DATE: ca 6 BC - Herod "Archelaus" was exiled to Gaul and Augustus made Samaria, Judea, and Idumea a Roman province Iudaea.
DATE: ca 6 AD - Annas High Priest officially from 6-15 AD, but who lived until assasinated in 66 AD
DATE: ca 14 AD - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, died.

Harmony reading 3: John the Baptist's and Jesus' impact (Oct 2)

DATE: ca 14 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire, began his reign
DATE: ca 18 AD - Caiaphas High Priest from 18-36 AD (John 18:13 - son-in-law of Annas)
DATE: ca 21 AD - Quirinius, governor of Syria died
DATE: ca 26 AD - Pontius Pilate became the fifth Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire is mentioned in his 15th year (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 29 AD - Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - John the Baptist began his ministry (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Jesus began his ministry around the age of 30, soon after John

Harmony reading 4: Crucified (Nov 4)

DATE: ca 30 AD - around the age of 33, Jesus was crucified after being tried by Pontius Pilate and High Priest Annas
DATE: ca 6 AD - Annas High Priest officially from 6-15 AD, but who lived until assasinated in 66 AD
DATE: ca 14-37 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire, began his reign
DATE: ca 18-36 AD - Caiaphas High Priest from 18-36 AD (John 18:13 - son-in-law of Annas)
DATE: ca 4 BC-34 AD - Philip the Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis, son of Herod the Great, died
DATE: ca 26-36 AD - after ruling about 10 years, Pontius Pilate was exiled to Gaul, perhaps by the cruel and insane Caligula who ruled Rome from 37Ė41 AD
DATE: ca 37 AD - Tiberius, Emperor of the Roman Empire, died and was followed by Caligula (AD 37Ė41) who claimed divinity
DATE: ca 39 AD - Tetrarch Herod Antipas was exiled from Galilee and Perea by his nephew Agrippa I who took over Galilee and Perea


Earlier Kingdoms of the Area

Persia and Judah - Persia (Persian Empire) aka Achaemenid Empire c 550-330 BC; with maps; included what had been Babylon, 539 BC

more before:
DATE: ca 430-420 BC - Some think late in the reign of Artaxerxes I Longimanus or early in the reign of Darius II (ca 423-404 BC), Malachi wrote warnings and promises from the LORD.

Persian Empire kings - links to Wikipedia for information on kings of the Persian Empire from 559-330 BC

Empires governing the Israel in the Middle East - from 746 BC to current; lists of empires

Assyria - Second Empire of ASSYRIA with maps; 746-609 BC

Babylonia - NEO BABYLONIAN Empire with maps; ca. 627-539 BC

Egypt & Judah - Egypt neighbored Israel to the southwest

Final prophets and kings of Judah

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