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November 6   - Day 310 - New Testament reading day 38 of 99
* Study Indexes: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* Introduction to the books of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* BOOKS on Gospel, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Amazon.com
* BIBLE DICTIONARY - as Crucify | Messiah | RESURRECTION
* Scriptural requirements of Messiah, MessiahRevealed.org
* MAPS * OUTLINE BIBLE * TIMELINES * Map of Galilee
Commentary:
Death, Resurrection, Servant Assignments Mt 27:27-28:20

Local History: (The Roman Empire and Israel)
  Rulers of Rome and Israel when Jesus was crucified

Scriptures: (86vs)
* Matthew 27:53-54 (2vs)   57-66 (10vs)   28:1-15 (15vs) [27]  
* Mark 15:39,42-47 (7vs)   16:1-8 (8vs)   [15]
* Luke 23:47-48,50-56 (9vs)   24:1-12 (9vs)   [18]
* John 19:38-42 (5vs)   20:1-18 (18vs) [23] 


  A centurion responded to Jesus' death:
  Centurion response   Matthew 27:54 (1vs)

Now the centurion, and those who were with him watching Jesus,
when they saw the earthquake,
and the things that were done,
feared exceedingly, saying,

"Truly this was the Son of God."

  Centurion response   Mark 15:39 (1vs)

When the centurion, who stood by opposite him, saw
that he cried out like this and breathed his last, he said,

"Truly this man was the Son of God!"

  Centurion response   Luke 23:47-48 (2vs)

When the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying,

"Certainly this was a righteous man."
All the multitudes that came together to see this, when they saw the things that were done, returned home beating their breasts.


  Jesus' burial:
  Jesus was buried by Joseph of Arimathaea; women watched   Matthew 27:57-61 (5vs)

When evening had come, a rich man from Arimathaea, named Joseph, who himself was also Jesusí disciple came.

This man went to Pilate, and asked for Jesusí body.

Then Pilate commanded the body to be given up.

Joseph took the body, and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had cut out in the rock, and he rolled a great stone to the door of the tomb, and departed.

Mary Magdalene was there, and the other Mary, sitting opposite the tomb.

  Jesus was buried by Joseph of Arimathaea; women watched   Mark 15:42-47 (6vs)

When evening had now come, because it was the Preparation Day, that is, the day before the Sabbath, Joseph of Arimathaea, a prominent council member who also himself was looking for the Kingdom of God, came.

He boldly went in to Pilate, and asked for Jesusí body.

Pilate marveled if he were already dead; and summoning the centurion, he asked him whether he had been dead long.

When he found out from the centurion, he granted the body to Joseph.

He bought a linen cloth, and taking him down, wound him in the linen cloth, and laid him in a tomb which had been cut out of a rock. He rolled a stone against the door of the tomb.

Mary Magdalene and Mary, the mother of Joses, saw where he was laid.

  Jesus was buried by Joseph of Arimathaea; women watched   Luke 23:50-56 (7vs)

Behold, a man named Joseph, who was a member of the council, a good and righteous man (he had not consented to their counsel and deed), from Arimathaea, a city of the Jews, who was also waiting for the Kingdom of God: this man went to Pilate, and asked for Jesusí body.

He took it down, and wrapped it in a linen cloth, and laid him in a tomb that was cut in stone, where no one had ever been laid.

It was the day of the Preparation, and the Sabbath was drawing near.

The women, who had come with him out of Galilee, followed after, and saw the tomb, and how his body was laid.

They returned, and prepared spices and ointments. On the Sabbath they rested according to the commandment.

  Jesus was buried by Joseph of Arimathaea and Nicodemus   John 19:38-42 (5vs)

After these things, Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, asked of Pilate that he might take away Jesusí body. Pilate gave him permission. He came therefore and took away his body.

Nicodemus, who at first came to Jesus by night, also came bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred Roman pounds.

So they took Jesusí body, and bound it in linen cloths with the spices, as the custom of the Jews is to bury.

Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden. In the garden was a new tomb in which no man had ever yet been laid.

Then because of the Jewsí Preparation Day (for the tomb was near at hand) they laid Jesus there.


  The next day, on the Passover Sabbath:
  Pilate ordered Jesus' tomb be guarded   Matthew 27:62-66 (5vs)

Now on the next day, which was the day after the Preparation Day, the chief priests and the Pharisees were gathered together to Pilate, saying,

"Sir, we remember what that deceiver said while he was still alive:
'After three days I will rise again.'
Command therefore that the tomb be made secure until the third day,
lest perhaps his disciples come at night
and steal him away, and tell the people,
'He is risen from the dead;'
and the last deception will be worse than the first."
Pilate said to them,
"You have a guard.
Go, make it as secure as you can."
So they went with the guard and made the tomb secure, sealing the stone.


On Passover (Saturday), after Jesus was crucified,
Pilate posted guards to secure Jesus' body in the tomb. Matthew 27:62-66

By daybreak on Sunday, the women found that Jesus' body was gone.
Mark 16:1-8, Matthew 28:1-8, John 20:1-9, Luke 24:1-12

Some other people were resurrected when Jesus died and were seen after
Jesus rose. Matthew 27:52-53

Chief priests then heard about the empty tomb,
and plotted an explanation with the guards. Matthew 28:11-15

People who had known Him began seeing Jesus alive.
John 20:10-18, Matthew 28:9-10, Luke 24:13-35, Mark 16:9-14, Luke 24:36-49

  Jesus was resurrected on the third day:
  The women discovered the tomb empty   Mark 16:1-8 (8vs)

When the Sabbath was past,
Mary Magdalene,
and Mary the mother of James,
and Salome,
bought spices, that they might come and anoint him.

Very early on the first day of the week, they came to the tomb when the sun had risen.

They were saying among themselves,

"Who will roll away the stone from the door of the tomb for us?"

for it was very big.

Looking up, they saw that the stone was rolled back.

Entering into the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, dressed in a white robe, and they were amazed.

He said to them,

"Donít be amazed.
You seek Jesus, the Nazarene,
who has been crucified.
He has risen. [Hos 6:2]
He is not here.
Behold, the place where they laid him!

But go, tell his disciples and Peter,

'He goes before you into Galilee.
There you will see him,
as he said to you.'"
They went out [* one source adds "quickly"], and fled from the tomb, for trembling and astonishment had come on them.

They said nothing to anyone; for they were afraid.

  The women discovered the tomb empty   Matthew 28:1-8 (8vs)

Now after the Sabbath,
as it began to dawn on the first day of the week,
Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the tomb.

Behold, there was a great earthquake,
for an angel of the Lord descended from the sky,
and came and rolled away the stone from the door, and sat on it.

His appearance was like lightning, and his clothing white as snow.

For fear of him, the guards shook, and became like dead men.

The angel answered the women,

"Donít be afraid, for I know that you seek Jesus, who has been crucified.

He is not here, for he has risen, just like he said.

Come, see the place where the Lord was lying.

Go quickly and tell his disciples,

'He has risen from the dead,
and behold, he goes before you into Galilee;
there you will see him.'
Behold, I have told you."
They departed quickly from the tomb with fear and great joy,
and ran to bring his disciples word.


  Day 3 after Jesus died was the 1st day of the week:
  The women discovered the tomb empty   John 20:1-9 (9vs)

Now on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene went early, while it was still dark, to the tomb, and saw the stone taken away from the tomb.

Therefore she ran and came to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and said to them,

"They have taken away the Lord out of the tomb, and we donít know where they have laid him!"
Therefore Peter and the other disciple went out, and they went toward the tomb.

They both ran together.
The other disciple outran Peter, and came to the tomb first.

Stooping and looking in, he saw the linen cloths lying, yet he didnít enter in.

Then Simon Peter came, following him, and entered into the tomb.

He saw the linen cloths lying,
and the cloth that had been on his head,
not lying with the linen cloths,
but rolled up in a place by itself.

So then the other disciple who came first to the tomb
also entered in, and he saw and believed.

For as yet they didnít know the Scripture,
that he must rise from the dead.

  The women discovered the tomb empty   Luke 24:1-12 (12vs)

But on the first day of the week, at early dawn, they and some others came to the tomb, bringing the spices which they had prepared.

They found the stone rolled away from the tomb.

They entered in, and didnít find the Lord Jesusí body.

It happened, while they were greatly perplexed about this, behold, two men stood by them in dazzling clothing.

Becoming terrified, they bowed their faces down to the earth.

They said to them,

"Why do you seek the living among the dead?

He isnít here, but is risen.
Remember what he told you when he was still in Galilee,
saying that the Son of Man must

be delivered up into the hands of sinful men, [Psa 109:2]
and be crucified, [Psa 22:16-18]
and the third day rise again?"
They remembered his words,
returned from the tomb,
and told all these things to the eleven,
and to all the rest.

Now they were Mary Magdalene,
Joanna,
and Mary the mother of James
.

The other women with them told these things to the apostles.

These words seemed to them to be nonsense,
and they didnít believe them.

But Peter got up and ran to the tomb.

Stooping and looking in, he saw the strips of linen lying by themselves,
and he departed to his home, wondering what had happened.


  When Jesus died, some people were resurrected.
 After Jesus rose, they left the tomb area and were seen

  This was another promised sign identifying Jesus as Messiah [Ezek 37:12-14]
  Tombs opened; many resurrected
  another promised sign of Messiah [Ezek 37:12-14]
  Matthew 27:53 (1vs)

and coming out of the tombs after his resurrection, [Matt 27:52]
they entered into the holy city and appeared to many.


  Tomb security guards reported to chief priest
  Chief priests heard about the empty tomb   Matthew 28:11-15 (5vs)

Now while they were going, behold,
some of the guards came into the city,
and told the chief priests all the things that had happened.

When they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel,
they gave a large amount of silver to the soldiers, saying,

"Say that his disciples came by night,
and stole him away while we slept.

If this comes to the governorís ears,
we will persuade him and make you free of worry."

So they took the money and did as they were told.

This saying was spread abroad among the Jews,
and continues until this day.


  Jesus began appearing to those who had known him
  People saw Jesus alive: Mary Magdalene   John 20:10-18 (9vs)

So the disciples went away again to their own homes.

But Mary was standing outside at the tomb weeping.
So, as she wept, she stooped and looked into the tomb,
and she saw two angels in white sitting, one at the head,
and one at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain.

They told her,

"Woman, why are you weeping?"
She said to them,
"Because they have taken away my Lord,
and I donít know where they have laid him."
When she had said this,
she turned around and saw Jesus standing,
and didnít know that it was Jesus.

Jesus said to her,

"Woman, why are you weeping?
Who are you looking for?"
She, supposing him to be the gardener, said to him,
"Sir, if you have carried him away,
tell me where you have laid him,
and I will take him away."
Jesus said to her,
"Mary."
She turned and said to him,
"Rabboni!"
which is to say,
"Teacher!"
Jesus said to her,
"Donít hold me,
for I havenít yet ascended to my Father;
but go to my brothers, and tell them,
'I am ascending to my Father
and your Father,
to my God and your God.'"
Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that
she had seen the Lord,
and that he had said these things to her.

  Jesus said to send disciples to Galilee   Matthew 28:9-10 (2vs)

As they went to tell his disciples, behold,
Jesus met them, saying,

"Rejoice!"
They came and took hold of his feet, and worshiped him.

Then Jesus said to them,

"Donít be afraid.
Go tell my brothers that they should go into Galilee,
and there they will see me."


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Map of Palestine Israel during Jesus' life


Local HISTORY charts: Roman Empire and the Messiah in Israel

Harmony reading 1: Messiah, the Christ - promised throughout scripture (Sept 30)

DATE: ca 51 BC - Quirinius, became governor of Syria
DATE: 44 BC - Julius Caesar was murdered; last Caesar of the Roman Republic. Civil war followed.
DATE: ca 37 (or 40) BC - Herod the Great began his reign in Judea, killing off the Hasmonean Dynasty and the Maccabees of the Kingdom of Israel (ca 140-37 BC). Map of the Kingdom of Herod.
DATE: ca 30 BC - Cleopatra of Egypt died
DATE: ca 30-27 BC - Caesar Augustus began ruling as first Emperor of the Roman Empire

Harmony reading 2: Jesus' background and ministry (Oct 1)

DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, ordered a census of the entire empire; Luke 2:1.
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Quirinius, governor of Syria ordered a census in Judea (Luke 2:2)
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Jesus was born in Bethlehem
DATE: ca   4 BC - in Judea Herod the Great died. He had rebuilt the 2nd Temple in Jerusalem, calling it Herod's Temple.
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod "Archelaus" replaced his father Herod as king of Judea until banished in 6 AD. (See Iudaea Province). (Matt 2:13-23)
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod Antipas replaced his father Herod as the tetrarch of Roman province of Galilee and Perea
DATE: ca 4 BC - Philip the Tetrarch replaced his father Herod as Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis 4 BC Ė 34 AD
DATE: ca 6 BC - Herod "Archelaus" was exiled to Gaul and Augustus made Samaria, Judea, and Idumea a Roman province Iudaea.
DATE: ca 6 AD - Annas High Priest officially from 6-15 AD, but who lived until assasinated in 66 AD
DATE: ca 14 AD - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, died.

Harmony reading 3: John the Baptist's and Jesus' impact (Oct 2)

DATE: ca 14 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire, began his reign
DATE: ca 18 AD - Caiaphas High Priest from 18-36 AD (John 18:13 - son-in-law of Annas)
DATE: ca 21 AD - Quirinius, governor of Syria died
DATE: ca 26 AD - Pontius Pilate became the fifth Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire is mentioned in his 15th year (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 29 AD - Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - John the Baptist began his ministry (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Jesus began his ministry around the age of 30, soon after John

Harmony reading 4: Crucified (Nov 4)

DATE: ca 30 AD - around the age of 33, Jesus was crucified after being tried by Pontius Pilate and High Priest Annas
DATE: ca 6 AD - Annas High Priest officially from 6-15 AD, but who lived until assasinated in 66 AD
DATE: ca 14-37 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire, began his reign
DATE: ca 18-36 AD - Caiaphas High Priest from 18-36 AD (John 18:13 - son-in-law of Annas)
DATE: ca 4 BC-34 AD - Philip the Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis, son of Herod the Great, died
DATE: ca 26-36 AD - after ruling about 10 years, Pontius Pilate was exiled to Gaul, perhaps by the cruel and insane Caligula who ruled Rome from 37Ė41 AD
DATE: ca 37 AD - Tiberius, Emperor of the Roman Empire, died and was followed by Caligula (AD 37Ė41) who claimed divinity
DATE: ca 39 AD - Tetrarch Herod Antipas was exiled from Galilee and Perea by his nephew Agrippa I who took over Galilee and Perea


Earlier Kingdoms of the Area

Persia and Judah - Persia (Persian Empire) aka Achaemenid Empire c 550-330 BC; with maps; included what had been Babylon, 539 BC

more before:
DATE: ca 430-420 BC - Some think late in the reign of Artaxerxes I Longimanus or early in the reign of Darius II (ca 423-404 BC), Malachi wrote warnings and promises from the LORD.

Persian Empire kings - links to Wikipedia for information on kings of the Persian Empire from 559-330 BC

Empires governing the Israel in the Middle East - from 746 BC to current; lists of empires

Assyria - Second Empire of ASSYRIA with maps; 746-609 BC

Babylonia - NEO BABYLONIAN Empire with maps; ca. 627-539 BC

Egypt & Judah - Egypt neighbored Israel to the southwest

Final prophets and kings of Judah

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