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November 7   - Day 311 - New Testament reading day 39 of 99
* Study Indexes: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* Introduction to the books of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
* BOOKS on Gospel, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Amazon.com
* BIBLE DICTIONARY - as Resurrect, Messiah
* Scriptural requirements of Messiah, MessiahRevealed.org
* MAPS * OUTLINE BIBLE * TIMELINES * Map of Galilee
Commentary:
Jesus Keeps His Word Jo 20-21

Local History: (The Roman Empire and Israel)
  Rulers of Rome and Israel when Jesus was crucified

Scriptures: (96vs)
* Matthew 28:16-20 (5vs)   * Mark 16:9-20 (12vs)   * Luke 24:13-53 (41vs)   * John 20:19-31 (13vs)   21:1-25 (25vs)  


  Jesus began appearing to those who had known him
  People saw Jesus alive: Cleopas; Simon   Luke 24:13-35 (23vs)

Behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was sixty stadia from Jerusalem.

They talked with each other about all of these things which had happened.

It happened, while they talked and questioned together,
that Jesus himself came near, and went with them.

But their eyes were kept from recognizing him.

He said to them,

"What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad?"
One of them, named Cleopas, answered him,
"Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn’t know the things which have happened there in these days?"
He said to them,
"What things?"
They said to him,
"The things concerning Jesus, the Nazarene,
who was a prophet
mighty in deed and word before God and all the people;
and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up
to be condemned to death, and crucified him.

But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel.

Yes, and besides all this,
it is now the third day since these things happened.

Also, certain women of our company amazed us,
having arrived early at the tomb;
and when they didn’t find his body,
they came saying that they had also seen a vision of angels,
who said that he was alive.

Some of us went to the tomb,
and found it just like the women had said,
but they didn’t see him."

He said to them,
"Foolish men, and slow of heart
to believe in all that the prophets have spoken!

Didn’t the Christ have to suffer these things
and to enter into his glory?"

Beginning from Moses
and from all the prophets,
he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself.

They drew near to the village, where they were going,
and he acted like he would go further.

They urged him, saying,

"Stay with us, for it is almost evening,
and the day is almost over."
He went in to stay with them.

It happened, that when he had sat down at the table with them,
he took the bread and gave thanks.
Breaking it, he gave to them.

Their eyes were opened, and they recognized him,
and he vanished out of their sight.

They said one to another,

"Weren’t our hearts burning within us,
while he spoke to us along the way,
and while he opened the Scriptures to us?"
They rose up that very hour,
returned to Jerusalem,
and found the eleven gathered together,
and those who were with them, saying,
"The Lord is risen indeed,
and has appeared to Simon!"
They related the things that happened along the way,
and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread.

  People saw Jesus alive: Mary Magdalene; 2 going to Emmaus; the 11 apostles   Mark 16:9-14 (6vs)

Now when he had risen early on the first day of the week,
he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven demons.

She went and told those who had been with him,
as they mourned and wept.

When they heard that he was alive, and had been seen by her,
they disbelieved.

After these things he was revealed in another form to two of them,
as they walked, on their way into the country.

They went away and told it to the rest.
They didn’t believe them, either.

Afterward he was revealed to the eleven themselves
as they sat at the table,
and he rebuked them for their unbelief
and hardness of heart, because they didn’t believe those
who had seen him after he had risen.

  Jesus appeared to his disciples again   Luke 24:36-49 (14vs)

As they said these things, Jesus himself stood among them, and said to them,

"Peace be to you."
But they were terrified and filled with fear, and supposed that they had seen a spirit.

He said to them,

"Why are you troubled?
Why do doubts arise in your hearts?
See my hands and my feet, that it is truly me.
Touch me and see,
for a spirit doesn’t have flesh and bones,
as you see that I have."
When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.

While they still didn’t believe for joy,
and wondered, he said to them,

"Do you have anything here to eat?"
They gave him a piece of a broiled fish and some honeycomb.

He took them, and ate in front of them.

He said to them,

"This is what I told you, while I was still with you,
that all things which are written in the law of Moses,
the prophets,
and the psalms, concerning me
must be fulfilled."
Then he opened their minds,
that they might understand the Scriptures.

He said to them,

"Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary
for the Christ to suffer
and to rise from the dead the third day,
and that repentance and remission of sins
should be preached in his name to all the nations,
beginning at Jerusalem.

You are witnesses of these things.

Behold, I send forth the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed with power from on high."

  People saw Jesus alive: Thomas wanted proof   John 20:19-25 (7vs)

When therefore it was evening, on that day, the first day of the week, and when the doors were locked where the disciples were assembled, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the midst, and said to them,

"Peace be to you."
When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his side. The disciples therefore were glad when they saw the Lord.

Jesus therefore said to them again,

"Peace be to you. As the Father has sent me, even so I send you."
When he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them,
"Receive the Holy Spirit!

Whoever’s sins you forgive, they are forgiven them.
Whoever’s sins you retain, they have been retained."

But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, wasn’t with them when Jesus came.

The other disciples therefore said to him,

"We have seen the Lord!"
But he said to them,
"Unless I see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe."

  People saw Jesus alive: Sunday #2, Thomas believed   John 20:26-29 (4vs)

After eight days again his disciples were inside, and Thomas was with them.

Jesus came, the doors being locked, and stood in the midst, and said,

"Peace be to you."
Then he said to Thomas,
"Reach here your finger, and see my hands. Reach here your hand, and put it into my side. Don’t be unbelieving, but believing."
Thomas answered him,
"My Lord and my God!"
Jesus said to him,
"Because you have seen me, you have believed. Blessed are those who have not seen, and have believed."


  To some disciples fishing in Sea of Galilee (Tiberias)
  Alive: Jesus reappeared to Peter, Thomas, Nathanael, sons of Zebedee, plus 2   John 21:1-25 (25vs)

After these things, Jesus revealed himself again to the disciples at the sea of Tiberias.
He revealed himself this way.

Simon Peter, Thomas called Didymus, Nathanael of Cana in Galilee,
and the sons of Zebedee, and two others of his disciples
were together.
Simon Peter said to them,

“I’m going fishing.”
They told him,
“We are also coming with you.”
They immediately went out, and entered into the boat.
That night, they caught nothing.

But when day had already come, Jesus stood on the beach,
yet the disciples didn’t know that it was Jesus.

Jesus therefore said to them,

“Children, have you anything to eat?”
They answered him,
“No.”
He said to them,
“Cast the net on the right side of the boat, and you will find some.”
They cast it therefore, and now they weren’t able to draw it in for the multitude of fish.

That disciple therefore whom Jesus loved said to Peter,

“It’s the Lord!”
So when Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord,
he wrapped his coat around him (for he was naked), and threw himself into the sea.
But the other disciples came in the little boat
(for they were not far from the land, but about two hundred cubits away),
dragging the net full of fish.

So when they got out on the land, they saw a fire of coals there, and fish laid on it, and bread.

Jesus said to them,

“Bring some of the fish which you have just caught.”
Simon Peter went up, and drew the net to land, full of great fish, one hundred fifty-three;
and even though there were so many, the net wasn’t torn.

  Jesus ate fish with the disciples

Jesus said to them,

“Come and eat breakfast.”
None of the disciples dared inquire of him,
“Who are you?”
knowing that it was the Lord.

Then Jesus came and took the bread, gave it to them, and the fish likewise.

This is now the third time that Jesus was revealed to his disciples, after he had risen from the dead.

  Conversation: Jesus talks to Simon Peter

So when they had eaten their breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter,

“Simon, son of Jonah, do you love me more than these?”
He said to him,
“Yes, Lord; you know that I have affection for you.”
He said to him,
“Feed my lambs.”
He said to him again a second time,
Simon, son of Jonah, do you love me?”
He said to him,
“Yes, Lord; you know that I have affection for you.”
He said to him,
“Tend my sheep.”

He said to him the third time,

Simon, son of Jonah, do you have affection for me?”
Peter was grieved because he asked him the third time,
“Do you have affection for me?”
He said to him,
“Lord, you know everything.
You know that I have affection for you.”
Jesus said to him,
“Feed my sheep.

  The future for Simon Peter

Most certainly I tell you, when you were young, you dressed yourself,
and walked where you wanted to.
But when you are old, you will stretch out your hands,
and another will dress you, and carry you where you don’t want to go.” Now he said this, signifying by what kind of death he would glorify God.
When he had said this, he said to him,

“Follow me.”

  Don't be sidetracked by what happens to other disciples; you follow Jesus

Then Peter, turning around, saw a disciple following.
This was the disciple whom Jesus sincerely loved,
the one who had also leaned on Jesus’ breast at the supper and asked,

“Lord, who is going to betray You?”
Peter seeing him, said to Jesus,
“Lord, what about this man?”
Jesus said to him,
“If I desire that he stay until I come, what is that to you? You follow me.”

This saying therefore went out among the brothers, that this disciple wouldn’t die.
Yet Jesus didn’t say to him that he wouldn’t die, but,

“If I desire that he stay until I come, what is that to you?”

  Author and Conclusion

This is the disciple who testifies about these things, and wrote these things.
We know that his witness is true.

There are also many other things which Jesus did, which if they would all be written,
I suppose that even the world itself wouldn’t have room for the books that would be written.


  Disciples went back to Galilee, returned to Jerusalem
  Final instructions   Matthew 28:16-20 (5vs)

But the eleven disciples went into Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had sent them.
When they saw him, they bowed down to him, but some doubted.

Jesus came to them and spoke to them, saying,

"All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth.
Go, *
and make disciples of all nations,
baptizing them in the name
of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
teaching them to observe all things that I commanded you.

Behold, I am with you always,
even to the end of the age."

Amen.

  Final instructions   Mark 16:15-20 (6vs)

He said to them,

"Go into all the world,
and preach the Good News to the whole creation.
He who believes and is baptized will be saved;
but he who disbelieves will be condemned.

These signs will accompany those who believe:

in my name they will cast out demons;
they will speak with new languages;
they will take up serpents;
and if they drink any deadly thing, it will in no way hurt them;
they will lay hands on the sick, and they will recover."
So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was received up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God.

They went out, and preached everywhere, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word by the signs that followed.

Amen.

  Final instructions obeyed   Luke 24:50-53 (4vs)

He led them out as far as Bethany,
and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them.

It happened, while he blessed them,
that he withdrew from them, and was carried up into heaven.

They worshiped him,
and returned to Jerusalem with great joy,
and were continually in the temple,
praising and blessing God.

Amen.


  Why Jesus continued giving signs to those who had known him in Israel
  Signs to disciples   John 20:30-31 (2vs)

Therefore Jesus did many other signs in the presence of his disciples,
which are not written in this book;
but these are written, that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ,
the Son of God,
and that believing you may have life in his name.


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Map of Palestine Israel during Jesus' life


Local HISTORY charts: Roman Empire and the Messiah in Israel

Harmony reading 1: Messiah, the Christ - promised throughout scripture (Sept 30)

DATE: ca 51 BC - Quirinius, became governor of Syria
DATE: 44 BC - Julius Caesar was murdered; last Caesar of the Roman Republic. Civil war followed.
DATE: ca 37 (or 40) BC - Herod the Great began his reign in Judea, killing off the Hasmonean Dynasty and the Maccabees of the Kingdom of Israel (ca 140-37 BC). Map of the Kingdom of Herod.
DATE: ca 30 BC - Cleopatra of Egypt died
DATE: ca 30-27 BC - Caesar Augustus began ruling as first Emperor of the Roman Empire

Harmony reading 2: Jesus' background and ministry (Oct 1)

DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, ordered a census of the entire empire; Luke 2:1.
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Quirinius, governor of Syria ordered a census in Judea (Luke 2:2)
DATE: ca 6-4 BC - Jesus was born in Bethlehem
DATE: ca   4 BC - in Judea Herod the Great died. He had rebuilt the 2nd Temple in Jerusalem, calling it Herod's Temple.
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod "Archelaus" replaced his father Herod as king of Judea until banished in 6 AD. (See Iudaea Province). (Matt 2:13-23)
DATE: ca 4 BC - Herod Antipas replaced his father Herod as the tetrarch of Roman province of Galilee and Perea
DATE: ca 4 BC - Philip the Tetrarch replaced his father Herod as Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis 4 BC – 34 AD
DATE: ca 6 BC - Herod "Archelaus" was exiled to Gaul and Augustus made Samaria, Judea, and Idumea a Roman province Iudaea.
DATE: ca 6 AD - Annas High Priest officially from 6-15 AD, but who lived until assasinated in 66 AD
DATE: ca 14 AD - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, died.

Harmony reading 3: John the Baptist's and Jesus' impact (Oct 2)

DATE: ca 14 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire, began his reign
DATE: ca 18 AD - Caiaphas High Priest from 18-36 AD (John 18:13 - son-in-law of Annas)
DATE: ca 21 AD - Quirinius, governor of Syria died
DATE: ca 26 AD - Pontius Pilate became the fifth Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire is mentioned in his 15th year (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 29 AD - Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - John the Baptist began his ministry (Luke 3:1)
DATE: ca 28-29 AD - Jesus began his ministry around the age of 30, soon after John

Harmony reading 4: Crucified (Nov 4)

DATE: ca 30 AD - around the age of 33, Jesus was crucified after being tried by Pontius Pilate and High Priest Annas
DATE: ca 6 AD - Annas High Priest officially from 6-15 AD, but who lived until assasinated in 66 AD
DATE: ca 14-37 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire, began his reign
DATE: ca 18-36 AD - Caiaphas High Priest from 18-36 AD (John 18:13 - son-in-law of Annas)
DATE: ca 4 BC-34 AD - Philip the Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis, son of Herod the Great, died
DATE: ca 26-36 AD - after ruling about 10 years, Pontius Pilate was exiled to Gaul, perhaps by the cruel and insane Caligula who ruled Rome from 37–41 AD
DATE: ca 37 AD - Tiberius, Emperor of the Roman Empire, died and was followed by Caligula (AD 37–41) who claimed divinity
DATE: ca 39 AD - Tetrarch Herod Antipas was exiled from Galilee and Perea by his nephew Agrippa I who took over Galilee and Perea


Earlier Kingdoms of the Area

Persia and Judah - Persia (Persian Empire) aka Achaemenid Empire c 550-330 BC; with maps; included what had been Babylon, 539 BC

more before:
DATE: ca 430-420 BC - Some think late in the reign of Artaxerxes I Longimanus or early in the reign of Darius II (ca 423-404 BC), Malachi wrote warnings and promises from the LORD.

Persian Empire kings - links to Wikipedia for information on kings of the Persian Empire from 559-330 BC

Empires governing the Israel in the Middle East - from 746 BC to current; lists of empires

Assyria - Second Empire of ASSYRIA with maps; 746-609 BC

Babylonia - NEO BABYLONIAN Empire with maps; ca. 627-539 BC

Egypt & Judah - Egypt neighbored Israel to the southwest

Final prophets and kings of Judah

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