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December 19   - Day 353
Scriptures: (89vs)
* Hebrews   6 (20vs)   7 (28vs)   8 (13vs)   9 (28vs)

* History, and commentary below
* Study Indexes: Hebrews
* Introduction to the book of Hebrews
* BOOKS on Hebrews,
* BIBLE DICTIONARY - Gospel | Hebrews | Jews
* Scriptural requirements of Messiah,
* Chart: Kings of Judah and Israel
* Charts: Israel history | Crucifixion
* Timeline: Some prophets of Judah and Israel
* Timelines: New Testament * Dates of NT books,
* Biography of possible author: Barnabas, wikipedia
* Map of Early church travel and events
* Map of the rise and fall of Roman Empire, 753 BC- 1453 AD
Why A New Covenant Plan?
Hebrews 6-9

Local History:
Hebrews was written by someone during the age of the apostles
before 70 AD when the temple was distroyed, perhaps in the early 60s. (EBD; wikipedia)
Written from Italy (Rome), Timothy had recently been released from prison there. (13:22-23)

* Timelines of events of the apostles and of the reigns of emporers of Rome
* The Roman Empire and Israel [Judea]
* Rulers of Rome and Israel when Jesus was crucified

Scriptures: (89vs)
* Hebrews   6 (20vs)   7 (28vs)   8 (13vs)   9 (28vs)

  What God was recorded to have said to Israel
  throughout history,
  showed specific evidence of what more was coming
  to complete, perfect, save His people of all nations

  (more on Hebrews and Epistle to the Hebrews at wikipedia)

  Hebrews 6 (20vs)
  * We need to continue on in the first principles of Christ, listed, to keep producing fruit.
  * Imitate those, like Abraham, who inherited God's promises through faith and patience.
  * Do you see that God and his long-term promises are immutable (i.e., unchangeable)?

  Hebrews 7 (28vs)
  * What does the Bible mean that Jesus is a priest after the order of Melchizedek?
  * If the Levite priesthood and the law were enough for man's salvation, why would the Bible promise a priest like Melchizedek, and not just a priest like Aaron?
  * Since Jesus was not a Levite, how could he be high priest?
  * Logically, what changes come to the law and to the covenant from changing to one everlasting priest instead of many generational priests?

  Hebrews 8 (13vs)
  * Which priesthood copied or was patterned after the other?
  * What's the difference between gifts and sacrifices offered on earth and in heaven?
  * What did the (Old Testament) Scriptures say about the new covenant?

  Hebrews 9 (28vs)
  * What are the differences between the prescribed services many priests performed in the tabernacle sanctuary on earth, and what the high priest did once a year?
  * What are the differences between blood from the animal sacrifices, and blood from Jesus' sacrifice?
  * What are the differences between holy places made by men's hands, and the holy place created by God Himself?
  * How does Jesus deal with our sin?

"..Christ was sacrificed once
to take away the sins of many people;
and he will appear a second time,
not to bear sin,
but to bring salvation
to those who are waiting for him."
Today's Bible Commentary: Hebrews

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Map of some early church events - click to enlarge

Local HISTORY charts:

Timelines of apostles work during reigns of Roman emporers

History of the Dispersed Jews from Judea area around Jerusalem:
  * Diaspora, wikipedia * Dispersed Jews of Africa and Asia et al
  * - "After being conquered and dispersed by the Babylonians, Persians, and Greeks, Judea again became independent under the Hasmonean Jewish Kingdom from 165 to 63 B.CE."

Roman Empire citizens begin to hear about the Messiah in Israel

Approximate dates of various events of the apostles

* NT Introduction and The Book of Acts, Baruch Smith

* ca 30 AD - Jesus was crucified in Judea just outside of Jerusalem
* ca 30 AD - Witnesses saw Jesus alive, resurrected in Judea
* ca 32 AD - Stephen preached and was stoned to death
* ca 32-36 AD - Jesus converted Saul (aka Paul) on the road to Damascus (Acts 9:1-31, 22:1-22, 26:9-24)
* ca 44-46 AD - Paul's 1st missionary journey with Barnabas (Acts 13-14)
* ca 49 or 50 AD - Jerusalem Conference for circumcision controversy (Acts 15; Gal 2:1)
* ca 50-52 AD - Paul's 2nd mission journey (Acts 16, 17, 18)
* ca 52 AD - Paul, Silas, Timothy spent about 18 months in Corinth (Acts 18)
* ca 53-57 AD - Paul's 3rd mission journey (Acts 18,19,20,21)
* ca 53-57 AD - Paul's 3rd mission journey: Ephesus (Acts 19)
* ca 61 AD - Barnabas was stoned to death in his home country Cyprus
    (per "Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church" at wikipedia)
* More on Paul's trips
* more about Paul
* mid-60s (67?) - Paul died, killed in Rome wikipedia
* ca 64 or 67 - Peter died, killed in Rome (Wikipedia: 67 or 64)
* ca 100 - John the apostle (ca 6-100) died
* 306-337 - Constantine 1 was the first Christian Roman Emperor, over 250 years after Peter and Paul's deaths.

Roman Empire - secular dates of reign list of the Emperors of Rome

* Map of the rise and fall of Roman Empire, 753 BC-1453 AD

REIGNED: 81-96 AD - Caesar Domitian, emperor of the Roman Empire for ca 15 years. Ending the Flavian dynasty, he was assassinated.
REIGNED: 79-81 AD - Caesar Titus, emperor of the Roman Empire for ca 2 years, dying of a fever.
79 AD: Mt Vesuvius erupted, following a disasterous earthquake around Pompeii in 62 AD.
REIGNED: 69-79 AD - Caesar Vespasian, emperor of the Roman Empire for about 10 years. Having been a military leader, he conquered Britain in 43 AD, was at the Judea Rebellion (66-73), and was reigning when Jerusalem fell (70AD). Construction on the Colosseum (ca 71-80 AD) began during his reign.
REIGNED: 69 AD - Caesar Vitellius, emperor of the Roman Empire for 8 months.
REIGNED: 69 AD - Caesar Otho, emperor of the Roman Empire for 3 months.
REIGNED: 68-69 AD - Caesar Galba, emperor of the Roman Empire
REIGNED: 56-68 AD - Caesar Nero, emperor of the Roman Empire ruled during the great fire of Rome (64AD). The Judea Rebellion began (66 AD) during his reign. He committed suicide rather than be assasinated, aged 30.
REIGNED: 41-56 AD - Caesar Claudius, emperor of the Roman Empire conquered Britain, Judea, Phamphylia, Lycia.
Aquila and Priscilla moved to Corinth because Claudius exiled all Jews from Rome.
REIGNED: 37-41 AD - Caesar Caligula, emperor of the Roman Empire
REIGNED: 14-37 AD - Caesar Tiberius, emperor of the Roman Empire
REIGNED: 27 BC - 14 AD - Caesar Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire, ordered a census of the entire empire ca 6-4 BC; Luke 2:1.

Rulers of Rome and Israel when Jesus was crucified

Harmony reading 4: Jesus was crucified in Judea (Nov 4)

DATE: ca 30 AD - around the age of 33, Jesus was crucified after being tried by Pontius Pilate and High Priest Annas
DATE: ca 6 AD - Annas High Priest officially from 6-15 AD, but who lived until assasinated in 66 AD
DATE: ca 14-37 AD - Tiberius Caesar, Emperor of the Roman Empire, began his reign
DATE: ca 18-36 AD - Caiaphas High Priest from 18-36 AD (John 18:13 - son-in-law of Annas)
DATE: ca 4 BC-34 AD - Philip the Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis, son of Herod the Great, died
DATE: ca 26-36 AD - after ruling about 10 years, Pontius Pilate was exiled to Gaul, perhaps by the cruel and insane Caligula who ruled Rome from 3741 AD
DATE: ca 37 AD - Tiberius, Emperor of the Roman Empire, died and was followed by Caligula (AD 3741) who claimed divinity
DATE: ca 39 AD - Tetrarch Herod Antipas was exiled from Galilee and Perea by his nephew Agrippa I who took over Galilee and Perea

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